Intercultural communication in business settings
Intercultural communication in business settings Psychology of communication
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology of communication at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Hanna Ulatowska in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Learning and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Psych: Ch. 11- Intercultural Communication in Business, Health Care, and Educational Settings Intercultural Management: -Depends on the ability to communicate effectively -Depending on culture, process of building trust among business partners may take days, weeks, or even months Ex. American managers prefer to “get down to business” without spending much time getting to know business partners. Some Americans believe that getting to know other employees is a waste of time. Cultural Context: Role-centered mode of speaking where one’s choice of messages is influenced by one’s relative status in the conversation. Organizational Culture: (country culture) an organized pattern of values, beliefs, behaviors, and communication channels held by the members of an organization. Power Distance: how we place emphasis on a person’s position, degree. Large-power distance cultures: use top-down communication. Formality is important. Will act more polite and formal with those of a higher position. Ex. Sending a more formal email to a professor with good grammar vs. sending a text to a friend with a lot of abbreviations. Ex. Asian countries Small-power distance cultures: More informal; includes routinely asking for their opinion on work-related issues. This style of management is labeled as “participatory.” The thought is that if workers are allowed to participate in decision making. Ex. Australia Environmental Context: -Perspective on the environment, including such issues as information load, privacy, and the company’s overall orientation to nature. Assumptions about privacy are also important to take into account. In Korea, privacy is a luxury few possess or can afford, because physical privacy may be impossible to obtain. Koreans build imaginary or psychological walls around themselves. To violate the screen of privacy once it has been created is rude and discourteous. Perceptual Context: -attitudes, emotions, and motivations of the persons engaged in communication and how they affect information processing Learned through enculturation Understanding how the organization processes information is crucial to establishing and maintaining effective communication. Strategies include categorization and stereotyping Ex. Canada is the United States’ largest trading partner, yet Canadians hold some of the most negative views of the American people. In most of the Western countries surveyed, perceptions of Americans are positive. Characteristics such as “honest,” “inventive,” and “hardworking” are typical. But they also associate Americans with negative traits such as “greedy” and “violent.” Canadians, in particular, do not view Americans as hones, and Canada is the only Western nation in which the majority regard Americans as rude. Nonverbal codes of foreign counterparts are an essential part of a successful business venture. Although it is true that most of these foreign business partners will speak whom English, your knowledge and use of their language demonstrates your willingness to meet them halfway and will be much appreciated. Ex. American colloquial expression, “See ya later,” may be taken literally, such that your counterpart expects to schedule a specific date and time for seeing each other later. Management Practices Japanese Management: seen as custodian of employee security and welfare. The lifetime employment system is based on a psychological contract between the employees and the company about the employees’ lifetime dedication to the company in exchange for lifetime job security from the organization. -Seniority-based wage and promotion arrangement whereby employees are promoted and compensated based on the number of years they have served the organization. The system rewards older and longer-serving employees. High-context culture: Japanese do not feel the need to talk. They are comfortable with silence Japanese close their eyes when they are deeply concentrating To save face (Yours and theirs), Japanese will agree with you in principle. Japanese will not make a decision without first consulting relevant others to reach a consensus. Indirect eye contact is a sign of deference in Japan Japanese language is vague. Communication is a two-way process. The burden of understanding rests with bot the speaker and the listener. Often, the speaker will only hint at what is meant. The listener must be an active participant. German Management: fifth largest economy in the world. Decentralized collection of staes and reginos. Very diverse, with unique customs and conventions. Nornbern and southern regions are particularly different, Germany is difeficult and should be approached with some degree of acaution. According to intercultural consultants, Germans believe that people are controlled by their own actions, that facts are more important than face Factual honesty is more important than politeness (in contrast to Japanese cultures). They are taught to “save it for a rainy day”. Have more professional rather than academic degrees Specialists in their backgrounds Isolate themselves Divide themselves into groups culturally Focused primarily on West Germans Doors: important cultural symbol -protective shield from the outdoors “intruders” must always knock before entering German products are created by people that are specialized in that field Low-context like America Each word having an exact an precise meaning that means nothing else Ex. No fewer than eight words for comfort, each slightly differing by type of comfort Germans are fairly formal Conscious about their rank: always call other by their rank/position, no matter how close they are to that person. Ex. Even if you are best friends with the guy that is next door, if he is a Dr… you will call him Dr. Mexican Management Practice Free-market economy Important trading partner with US Concerned about behaviors that would interfere with the harmony between a group of ppl or family. Individual effort, self-starting, etc. creates suspicion because that persona may be trying to get ahead by showing off Large-power distance culture Offended by American casual/informal communication Low (or weak) uncertainty-avoidance cultures such as the US -Encouraged to take risks and be innovative Collectivistic, large-power-distance culture Confucian ideals form the foundation of Chinese management High-context culture Chinese Confucian heritage affects how Chinese will approach their business relationships Communication btw managers and workers is restricted Health Communication- the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual decisions that enhance health Patient-provider communication- face-to-face interaction between the patient and his or her individual health care provider, which includes physicians, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, and counselors, among others. Student-Teacher relationship exists in every culture. Teacher teaches and the student learns Learning Styles- an individual’s unique way of receiving, gathering, and storing information Experimental Learning Theory-learning knowledge that is obtained through experience Concrete Experience Abilities Abstract -Managing situations subjectively Conceptualization -Being sensitive to others Abilities -Applying logic -Analysis of problems Reflective Observation Abilities -Thoughtful watching and listening Active Experimentation Abilities -Taking action and risk -Taking on responsibilities -Learning abilities are equal, and learners must select which learning abilities are best suited for the specific learning situation they are facing Immediacy- refers to those verbal and nonverbal behaviors that reduce the physiological and psychological distance between interactants Non-verbal immediacy: oriented towards a hierarchical face system and assumes more respect from students toward the teacher. The teacher would value those who are more obedient and quiet in the class, listen to him and follow his instructions with no conditions. Ex. Chine Verbal immediacy: include the judicious use of humor, self- disclosure, narration (storytelling), and the prosocial use of certain types of power, such as expert power and referent power. Other verbal immediacy behaviors might include addressing students by their first names, initiating conversation with students before and after class about topics unrelated to class, and encouraging students to ask questions and discuss issues during class. Typical nonverbal immediacy behaviors include smiling, moderate gesturing, moving around the class instead of standing behind a lectern, direct eye contact, and casual dress. To be sure, these might not be the behaviors considered immediate in other cultures. Recommendations for the Intercultural Classroom 1. Motivated learning: teacing in context of both the past and the future 2. Balance concrete and conceptual information 3. Balance structured and unstructured activities 4. Make liberal use of visuals 5. Don’t just lecture: also provide students to reflect on what they have learned 6. Allow students to cooperate on some assignments: interacting with others.