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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Week 9 Monday November 23 2015 Art Design and Industry in Europe 19001940 Gropius Adolf Meyer Mies van der Rohe and Le Courbusie center four at Peter Behrens studio in Potsdam ca 1910 Walter Gropius Design for the Fagus Factory Alfeld an der Leine 1911 Factory for shoe laces Very important commercial product Good starting point for understanding his perspective as an architect through this project The floor plan and reflected ceiling plan have a strategic layout The exterior wall is broken up by open window spaces glass Glass was important an architecture trend in the mid19th century refer to Paxton s greenhouse architecture Use of thin iron supports that later become steel supports Important of gothic architecture thinking of high elevations that sustain a lot of glass Significant that this is used for an industrial building Gropius consideration of people laboring here because there is an emphasis on natural daylight coming into the space Gropius was influenced by American Industrial architecture Larkin Warehouse Buffalo NY 1911 Not usually seen as an inspiration for high end architecture but it was an important influence on Gropius No boundaries between mediums and fields Pragmatic Not as finesse as Gropius Opening up of load bearing walls that was inspirational to Gropius Gropius also interested in the use of material concrete 0 cheap and strong 0 Concrete can be poured on site or prefabricated off site 0 Malleable o Takes form of where it is poured Gropius borrows ideas from this building for the Fagus factory and other designs Gropius thinks about options drawn from inspiration such as innovative design in the Larkin Warehouse He uses brick and metal sash windows Almost completely unembellished Reasoning of pure reason Has some echo of the severe classicism in Behrens Images chosen by Gropius for article on New Industrial Architecture Johrbuch des Deutschen Werkbundes 1913 Grain silos and elevator Fort William Continental Motor Manufacturing Company Detroit Pages from Le Corbusier s Towards a New Architecture 0 Borrows from tracing back to the American system of manufacturing 0 Increasing worker productivity 0 Invention of time motion study in the 19th century that started the rational of the sequence of works this helped to get efficiency in the production line 0 Government organizations imposing new standards for compatibility of products and standards 0 The most systematic of industrial product was Page from Frank B Gilbreth Motion Study a Method for Increasing the Efficiency of the Workman 1911 Efficiency studies Assembly line in Ford Motor Plant Highland Park Michigan 191013 Production line in credited to Henry Ford Model T based on traditional horse drawn wagons revolutionary because it put independent mobility into the middle class private transportation is now in the reach to many more people lowering price of production make its less expensive and available to people materials added as the car moves down the line Front and back covers of Sears Roebuck and Co catalogue 1902 products more readily available expansion of consumer base through the catalogue you could get everything you needed delivered to you many people would not be able to afford it but the idea of it consolidates the consumer culture exponential expansion on Wedgewood s catalogues porcelain Water pumps and kitchen tools in Sears Roebuck and Co catalogue 1902 depictions are detailed elaborate descriptions and price points Ad for Westinghouse products in Good Housekeeping December 1923 important help to woman the farmer and some others many of them have domestic purposes woman who are running the home are greatly influenced for example having an electric sewing machine labor saving devices other items were not so helpfulnecessary like the apple peeler families are defined by the new commodities that they purchased social economic dimensions begin to change Europeans who come to the US are exposed to a new type of life Ad for Vest Pocket Kodak Camera Camera Work January 1913 Portable cameras now available This is a game changer in terms of recording ones environment Across wide sectors of society This impresses some European artists Francis Picabia Here s Haviland poetry is like him Starts to use industrial images for his fine art work FK Ehmcke Poster for Werkbund Exhibition Cologne 1914 Things in Europe develop differently You can see this in the Werkbund Exhibition Werkbund is a landmark association with various designers coming together They address the issue of what they can do with various types of design Different interested parties Sophisticated exhibition to show off what had been achieved in the 7 years of its existence Buildings in the Werkbunk exhibition were designed by famous architects Bruno Taut Glass Pavilion 1914 Exhibit glass industry Concreate frame with glass dome Remind of German medieval art and architecture pointed dome Plan showcases a staircase at the center Intended to impact the visitor through the use of glass Cascade of water with lights Kaleidoscope light show Light and color come together dynamically Gropius Model Factory 1914 Dramatic clerestory which is an architectural feat Capitalizes on natural light Gropius choices are incredibly inventive German expression murals thought to have bring colors Objective spiritual reality Hienersdorff Pavilion Workshop for stained Glass Cologne 1914 Show examples of stained glass used for architectural purposes especially churches Wednesday November 25 2015 The Great War The Bauhaus 19191933 comes after WWI BauhausSchool of Architecture amp considered a modern model for architecture and the arts Gropius determined a comprehensive program at this school Open ended investigative approach to education Mechanization and cultural artist Dada and its criticism focus on function streamline simple and clean WWI 1914 Context in which the Bauhaus matures Principal time period in Germany People in the Bauhaus of this time are very aware of the effects of the war and how it impacted housing design and other stresses that led to WWII WWI before 191418 with the US entering late Historians consider WWI to be the most formative impact on modern culture along with the industrial revolution not just a terrible war but it impacts thinking and public perception many problems in WWI it was harder than people expected people thought it would only last a short period of time people guiding the action of the troops were way behind the front line and were out of touch with what was actually happening at the front line of the war when orders got to the front it was almost like a suicide mission this is the first mechanized war first tanks and use of machine guns technology stimulated by the industrial revolution incredible bodily damage people suffer from chemical warfare chemical gas uses lungs destroyed even though they survived the war mental health destroyed psychological pain people who served or knew about it couldn t discuss it horror scenes could not be talked about experience is kept in side trench warfare fought from dug our trenches tough physical situation often couldn t get the dead out people could be trapped gardens sometimes planted near the trenches to help supplement their diet but also planted flowers very difficult to maintain sanity first instance of total warefare men woman and children all involved As a result there is an important shift Economy connection to nature thinking socially etc Starvation Germany English and France all of veterans begging on the street which is very disturbing There is a loss of confidence in authority Strong thread that becomes important because it is comprehensive People unconnected to the artistic world are involved Dissatisfaction Blind faith is lost International event that impacts the rest of the 20th century Woman do not have men to marry Artist help with prosthetics of wounded soldiers This atmosphere influences the rise ofiler He served in WWI Aftermath of WWI all the allied forces discussed the trade off they decided on a maximum price to be extracted from Germany Germany is responsible for the losses from other countries Germany s economy is crippled due to this Otto Dix incredible German expressionist artists I Shows the chaos in the streets Nuremberg Rallyin Germany Woodrow Wilson US President Destroyed his health when trying to avoid a downfall for the US General Marshal in WWII American English war posters 19151 7 British Graphic designers Require full national mobilization Shaped a level of fighting spirit to get the population to function Created monsters of the enemy monster shown destroying the city and then capturing a woman Shown destroying womanhood sister mother daughter implied People comment on bitternesss It was not possible to go back to the way things were Patriotic calls to enlist American War posters 191517 Uncle Sam shown Woman faceless shown with a warning as they take the consequences of failure that came along with winning the war French War posters Every culture has their own national language Dada Movement Started in Zurich and moved to Paris Berlin Dada chosen out of Romanian dictionary in a random way Meant to mean quotrocking horse but also a representation of a baby noise Chosen as a nonsense word with a humorous character Playfulness and humor is the characteristic of the dada art style Functions as an antiwar movement Through their activities and object they suggest absurdity and humor Deconstruction of high culture Zurlich one of the first sites of Dada NY also important First foundation of Dada events here Program of First Dada Evening at the Cabarat Voltair with painting by Marcel Janco of Dada Evening Figures shown here with improvisational quality On the edge of chaos Actually very serious people although they use humor They have a focused intent to create an environment of absurdity to comment on the war Critique of the war and get people to ask questions revolutionary in terms of the choices being made Duchamp foundational thinking of intellect with artists Ready mades Used existing objects Frances Picabia Machine Portraits 1915 Use of machines and industrial produced products are being advertised Electric lamp Camera Picabia takes these images of contemporary culture takes them out of context and juxapostitions them with absurd words or objects Important beginning for the evolution of artist transition into surrealism which deals with the psychological context and the subconscious mind Dada has an antiwar effort Raoul Haussmann Tatin at Home 1920 Dada exhibit Haussmann dada constructions Adoptions from photography magazines and publications Haphazard Collage object in part out of necessity during the war time when you couldn t get paint Relevant images to talk about the culture they trigger new ways of thinking while being humorous