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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Week 10 November 30, 2015 The Great War – The Bauhaus Key aspect of WWI was trench warfare - Intention was to have soldiers in dug outs where they could come out of to attack - Resulted in tremendous fatality (trench warfare used on both sides) - Heroic efforts – maybe one side advanced more than the other - Faith in the military, faith in the church developed from a blind naive support of the war - Feeling that the war could have been ended sooner Emergence of modernism develops at this time - Design reform movement in the 19 century o Go back to hand crafted- ness o Intelligent genius during the renaissance o There is an uneasy transition to industrial production of design o Society and practical pressures occur during this era Human fear of every triggering another world war (after WWI) - Bauhaus designers and others try to think in a new way - They really try to provide alternatives - Design used to positively impact society – maybe if we could have looked to art more the second war would have been different - Red Guard poster of October 25, 1917, announcing the transfer of power to the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies o “seven days that shook the world” – article to read o Written by an American – apologist of the Russian Revolution - Red Guards on armored car before the Smolny Institute, an elite girls’ school that had been seized by the Bolshevists as their headquarters during the October Revolution o A time of incredible chaos and fear - French Revolution, American Revolution and the Russian Revolution - National impact of the French revolution was huge - Alexander Apsit, Retreating before the Red Army 1919 - Alexander Apsit,To Horse Proletarian 1919 o Conservative graphic designer - Period before the Russian Revolution there were gifted designers in Russia that immigrated to Germany and other places because there was no place to show their work - M.Bloch, Red Metalworker before Palace of Labor Petrograd 1918 - Boris Korolev, Mikhail Bakunin, Ploshchad Turgenena, Moscow 1919 o Return of artist interested in the Avant guard return to Russia o Flanges to it that suggest exposed to cubism Different ways of responding to these social stressors and what design should look like: o They keep going back to what is happening in the streets (alienation in the modern city, prostitution) = constructivism 1919 o Then there are other perspectives that pull away from what is happening on the street and create a spiritualized view of it = this is the suprematists approach 1913 Constructuctivam and Suprematism is in Russia Russian Constructivism Valdimir Tatlin: Designer during the Russian Avant Guard Movement - Monument to the Third International 1919-20 o Scaled model of the building o Complex, sculpture design o Core was going to be three cylinders that would be revolving at different paces o Structure was to house all different types of government activities o It would be revolving at different rates connecting to the pace of the year and the natural cycle of the earth and sun o It would project news onto clouds overhear o There were all these fantastic ideas but it would be difficult to construct – it was never built o Sense of unlimited possibilities - Tatlin, Analysis of Bottle in Materials 1914 - Tatlin, Pictorial Relief 1914 - Pablo Picasso, Guitar 1913 o Ephemeral objects o Amazing objects with dimensionality o He created them hanging from his wall o Part inspired by synthetic cubism o Origin of modern collage art o Materials that are cast off from society - Fantastic moment of “anything is possible” after the war – it could be a wonderful place and we could solve any problem - Avant guard artists take their work to more remote areas - London and other governments realize that this type of art does not translate to illiterate people because they did not understand the political aspect– fall back is representational art o It is difficult for illiterate people to see the political message in these art works o They are not propagandistic in a clear way o The position is soon changed – this is where the representation of happy workers appears – they tell a story o These works were a direct result of the social and political issues going on! - New absolute system takes place Russian Suprematism Kasimir Malevich’s Suprematist Paintings and Vladimir Tatlin’s Corner Relieg at 0.10 exhibition in St. Petersburg December 1915 - Responses to circumstances with high stressors - George Braque, Aria Bach 1913 (Compare to the example of French Synthetic Cubism) o 3D assembly o Working with the abstracted forces that make them full of movement and dynamism o Talks about a time of incredible upheaval in a visual language o His contemporary is understood even though it is not clearly stated - El Lissitzky, Propaganda poster “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” 1919-20 o Graphic designer that is innovative in typography and graphic devices o Use of words along with graphic approach - Picasso, Standing Female Nude 1910 o Analytic cubism o Confuses the image, kind of turns things upside down o Read the picture through the shading and white space – suggests three dimensionality = he creates a collision of spaces - Piet Mondrian, Figure 1911 o The “style group” are interested in the same idea of Picasso o Inspired by the Cubists De Stijl Movement (Amsterdam – Dutch Movement Holland) Tried to create a universal aesthetic language Immediately post WWI generation Never see mixed colors Mondrian paintings 1914, 1916, 1917 - Mondrian continued to paint as much as he could during the war - Resolution with color blocks and Horizontal and vertical lines Piet Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, 1920 - Metamorphosis with the revolution Theo Van Doesburg, Composition XX 1920 Gerrit Rietveld, Furniture 1919-21 - Inexpensive, well designed and easily assembled - Meets urgent housing demands - Simple, positive use of colors - Ergonomic design - Considered for its comfort but of a kind that is quickly assembled Gerrit Rietveld, Interior of Schroder House, Utrecht 1924 - Like a painting exploded into a 3D form - Relates to values of the painting - Screen and wall can be moved to change the feeling of the space - Useful for changing demographics of who will live there Wednesday, December 2, 2015 WWI and the Bauhaus Bauhaus started in 1919, which is at the beginning of an unstable period in Dessau Germany There is crisis and economic crashes, as well as exposure to corruption. This is all a result of losing WWI. Walter Gropius was the first director of the Bauhaus - Gropius had a very pragmatic approach Bauhaus is a platform for a new view in society – begins to echo Morris in the Arts and Craft and a little bit of Pugin Bring down barriers between fine art and applied art Before WWI, Gropius was a follower of rationalist and industrialist architecture (from America) - War changed his perception - He was in military service, and when he returned he joined a group called the “Glass Chain” led by Taut - New type of community in architecture that would express the aspirations of a society Bauhaus Manifesto, With woodcut by Lionel Feininger 1919 - Cathedral like structure - Feininger was a faculty member of the Bauhaus - References segmented structure - References a cosmic atmosphere and the gothic - Stars are shown in the image around the dome/roof – they suggest a shining above the architecture as a visualization to “create a new guild of craftsman…” (last paragraph of his manifesto) o Idealistic post of view - Romantic concept of architecture - In his manifesto he says: art and architecture should return to the crafts Walter Gropius, Fagus Factory 1911-12, Model Factory, Werkbund Exhibition 1914 Program of Bauhaus 1919, and Diagram of Educational Program 1921 - Begins with the study of basics - Exploration of artistic forms and materials – need to understand this before their creation in architecture - First year it was opened there were also metal works and textile classes - Faculty were appointed to workshops and meant to work together to teach in material and content - Architecture was the ultimate goal = a synthesis of all the arts - Gropius says architecture is the most noble art Lionel Feininger, City of Moonlight 1916 - Influenced by cubism and Picasso from Paris Kandinsky, Red Oval 1920 - Returns to Russia and then Germany to participate in design - Becomes a member of Bauhaus Paul Klee, Forest Bird 1920 Marcks, Tile Portrait Otto Lindig 1921 - Portrait in relation to relief Sexist division of labor at the Bauhaus - Textile, woman workers, could never reach the level as men beyond this work - Designation of what is male work and female work Johannes Itten at Bauhaus 1920 - Arguable one of the most influential teachers of the Bauhaus - Influenced by the German expressionists - Intention was to work with children, but then became interested in letting children have their own learning path and using their curiosity to guide their learning. - He also used meditation and movement to cultivate thinking of psychological and physical states - He works in a fine are area, but also brings in a dimensional view and the subconscious - He thinks outside of his origin (with children) and goes onto a spiritual journey - He controlled the introduction course of the Bauhaus - This was a controversial approach because he brought the spiritual dimension into it - Itten, Works of 1916 and 1920 o Spiritual representation between the human and the spirit o Work is close to the German expressionists (Kandinsky) - Exercises in Itten’s Preliminary Course 1920-21 o Work by his students to express the inner-self in the creative process o Rhythmic calligraphy o Intuitive exploration of material constructions o Constructivist and suprematics looks like an influence but the intention is different because the purpose is not to suggest a unified theme, rather it is internal and an emanation of the interior thinking of a specific student o These are personal creations - Ceramics by Marcks and Lindig 1921 o Jug is award to use but personal in character o Unique designs o Still in the first stages of the Bauhaus program - Pitchers by Gyula Pap 1921 o Metal work o Personal innovation designs o About expressive content, less on the economic factor - Weavings by Gunta Stӧlzl 1921 o Textile works o This artist is exceptional Walter Gropius, Front and rear views of Sommerfeld House, 1920 - More romantic and regionally local tastes are expressed - Use of very heavy woof in the raw - Modernist manner - Client had money that came from shipping materials – material used was Teak Logs - Possibly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright (winslow, or alpine houses) - Expressionists and romancing dimensions Lazlo Moholy Nagy - Comes from an Avant guard, Russian, cutting edge approach to composition - Constructivism and supremetics - Some of his photographs express the balance of positive and negative space in a sense that the figure is not recognizable - Avant Guard object - Think about the time period – his works and photography were very unusual - He did sculptures in plastics too that came out of the beginning in Russia - His sculpture depends on lighting – he created and documented them himself - Indicated the perception by the way he photographs it - Light space modulator = Metals and plastics use to reflect light and create variance - His contribution to the Bauhaus suggests that there is a universe beyond the hand crafts - There are no boundaries between thinking and sculpture and mobile animated art - He later became the director of the Bauhaus in Chicago, IL USA - His ideas become expansive and overtake the craft and personality based teaching Gropius starts to rethink his rejection of industry because of the war in 1922 - Itten and Moholy Nagy are hired in the Bauhaus - Mature stage of the Bauhaus school is entered - Dresden Campus office – everything was made at the Bauhaus by students and faculty - Modernist light fixture used - Gropius was the designer of the building itself - Gropius starts to think of production lines and planning in the part of education into production (conceptualization into production) o This is why many of the Bauhaus designs have been given public awareness - Also involved in theater and costume design – cubistic or Avant guard way - Students of the Bauhaus has activities that were disconnected to popular culture and they were often misunderstood - Costumes become a persona - Comprehensive school with costume, textile, furniture design - Continued to be influenced by the De Stijl - Cutting edge photographic montages – here they are used elegantly in a programmatic way (influenced by cubism) Ultimately it leads to Gropius and other architects into the functional/modernism/international style of architecture - They later have their principal site in the united states - William Van Allen, Chrysler Building o Influenced by the Seigram building o Reference to the art deco style o Entry and lobby 1930
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