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Com 101 Week 14 Notes

by: Annabelle Hutson

Com 101 Week 14 Notes Com 101

Annabelle Hutson
GPA 3.72

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These are the notes from week 14 in Com 101 with Professor Richard Taftlinger.
Media and Society
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Com 101 at Washington State University taught by Taflinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 12/05/15
Week14NotesPsych105 Professor Preszler Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Originally PTSD was associated with military combat, but it can develop in survivors of other extreme traumas  This is only after trauma, and they have flashbacks to it  Likelihood of developing PTSD is linked to both their family history and the magnitude of trauma experiences  Avoidance: they try to avoid any thoughts or experiences that will remind them of the trauma, and this is what maintains the disorder causing it to get worse. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:  Disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to preform (compulsion).  Obsessions: o Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety o Common: fear of germs; pathological doubt about having completed a task.  Compulsions: o Repetitive behavior or mental acts that a person feels driven to preform to prevent or reduce anxiety and distress, or to prevent a dreaded event or situation. o May be overt or covert o Gives person feeling a brief relief when they perform the act  Serotonin, norepinephrine implicated o Drugs that increase the availability of these neurotransmitters decrease symptoms  Contamination: fear of contamination of dirt, germs, or other toxic substance  Pathological doubt: fear of not completing a task  Violent or sexual thoughts: fear that you have/will harm another person, or have engaged in unacceptable behavior.  Counting: need to engage in a behavior a certain amount of time  Symmetry: need for objects to actions to be perfectly symmetrical or in an exact order or position.  Checking: checking repeatedly to make sure a that a simple task has been accomplished  Washing: urge to repeatedly wash yourself or clean your surroundings. Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Emotions Gone Awry:  Emotions violate criteria of normal moods in quality, intensity, and duration.  Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders are given distinct DSM-5 categories  Major depressive disorder o 6 percent to 7 percent of Americans are effected o About 15 percent of Americans experience it at some point in their lives o Women are twice as likely as men to get it, they might be more vulnerable because they experience a higher chronic level of stress o A person must display most symptoms described in DSM-5 for two weeks or longer o Persistent depressive feelings may or may not be triggered by life events  Bereavement  Seasonal affective disorder  Persistent depressive disorder o People often relapse after their first episode, and their second episode can be expected somewhere in the following two years. o Symptoms tend to increase in severity and time between episodes’ decreases o Untreated, symptoms can last 6 months or longer and depression may recur and become progressively more severe.  Depression causes: o Situational bases for depression  Bipolar disorder: o Extreme mood swings o Manic episodes - incapacitating depression alternate with periods of extreme euphoria o Usually a manic episode is followed by a period of extreme depression o Can often be controlled by medication Eating and Feeding Disorders:  Cause death the most often  Involve serious and maladaptive disturbances in eating behavior  Anorexia Nervosa: o Fear of gaining weight o Distorted perception about the size of their body o Denies the serious of weight loss o Refuses to maintain a minimally normal body weight  Bulimia Nervosa: o Fear gaining weight o Stay within a normal weight range o Recognize that they have an eating disorder o Binges typically occur twice a week  Decreases brain activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin  Family interaction pattern: o Critical comments from parents o Parental modeling of disordered eating  Perfectionism,  Western cultural attitudes toward thinness Cultural-Bound Symptoms:  Some culture-specific disorders are found only in a single culture Personality Disorders:  Inflexible, maladaptive patters of thoughts, emotions, behaviors and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individuals’ culture  Categories: o Odd, eccentric disorder - o Dramatic, emotional, erratic cluster o Anxious, fearful cluster  Antisocial Personality Disorder: o Central feature is a pattern of blatantly disregarding and violating the rights of others  Deceiving and manipulating others for their own personal gain  Seem to lack "conscience"  Theft  Cruelty to animals o Sociopath vs psychopath  Sociopath: beliefs drive them to the things they do such as hurting others, and behaving violently. Might have empathy for people they do like and fit into their "group".  Psychopath: no empathy for others, they kind of know they are different. o Borderline Personality Disorder:  Most serious  Cutting and suicide attempts are very high  Afraid of being left  Caused by disruptions of attachments relationships in early childhood; neglect or physical, sexual, or emotional abuse in childhood.  Combo of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Dissociative Amnesia:  Dissociative disorder involves extensive memory disruptions  Extreme form of dissociative coping  Opposite effect occurs in most trauma victims Schizophrenia:  Delusions and false beliefs  Marked deficits or decreases in behavioral or emotional functions  Inability to speak (alogia)  Loss of motivation to do anything  Hallucinations - often in the form of voices,  Delusions are very common  Disorganized thoughts  Avolution and apathy  Happens in episodes  Happens in young adulthood generally  One quarter of people who experience it one time recover fully, another quarter have reoccurring episodes but are still able to function, and half of them will have chronic debilitating episodes.  Can be caused by mutations in the sperm of fathers  Age increases the rate of mutations  Mother's age makes no difference  There are thousands of risk factors that can add up in certain ways to make the disorder, and it is often brought out during a stress educed event  Genetic factors: if someone you are related to has schizophrenia, then it is more likely you will get it. This is not a purely genetic disease, but it can be a contributing factor. Therapies:  Psychotherapy: treatment of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of the problem. Done by psychology. o Freud/Rogers: thought psychotherapy was for increasing free will/actualization  Thought every person should be in therapy but the problem with that is that then people would not open up and share with their friends. They might not be as genuine with other people. o Scientific psychologists today: thought it was to reduce psychological distress o Since we are aimed at reducing psychological distress: empirical treatments (exposure therapy) that reduce such distress should be used over treatments that are not empirically based (we don't know if they work) o Freud: traditional psychoanalysis closely tied to Freud's theory of personality  Psychoanalysis used to uncover unconscious conflicts  Techniques and analyses used to unearth repressed memories  Free association  Dream interpretations  Resistance (when someone is just resistant to change); transference (when the patent takes a liking or hating toward the therapist, and vice versa) o Short-Term Dynamic Therapies:  Type based on psychoanalytic theory but differ in that they are typically time-limited and have specific goals  Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) and identification of personal problems: unresolved grief, role disputes (you don't like where you are in life), role transitions, interpersonal deficits (can't make friends) o Humanistic Therapy:  Emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and freedom of choice  Rogers: Client-Centered Therapy - client will focus directly on the therapy while the therapist does not interpret thoughts, make suggestions, or pass judgement. o Motivational Interviewing:  Helps clients overcome mixed feelings or reluctance about committing to change  Therapist emphasizes the way they are currently living brings them a lot of stress and makes them uncomfortable to help the client think about their current level of discomfort and how to change that, o Behavior Therapy:  Focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques; also called behavior modification  Cover Jones: worked with conditioned emotional response, and developed counterconditioning o Exposure therapy:  Treatment for anxiety disorders, PTSD, and OCD  Facing the fear in a controlled environment, where desensitization is the biggest goal  Virtual reality treatment works as well as regular o Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR):  Involves visually following therapist's waving finger while holding mental image of disturbing memories  Uses some exposure components  Is effective in symptoms relief from anxiety  Made by Shapiro o Aversive Conditioning  Is relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy.  Involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence o Token Economy: giving the reward when something is done correctly o Cognitive  Biomedical Therapy: uses medication or other medical treatment to treat psychological disorder symptoms


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