BIO20C | Week 9 - Ecosystems
BIO20C | Week 9 - Ecosystems BIOE 20C - 01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by echen30 on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 20C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marinovic,B.B. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Week 9 – Ecosystems BIO 20C – Baldo Marinovic Ecosystems o All species within an area o Abiotic components o = groups of community + chemical and physical environment o Characterized by flow of energy and matter 3 Basic Components o Abiotic environment o Producers o Consumers o Decomposers Energy vs. Matter o Matter cycles in ecosystems o Energy flows through ecosystems Autotrophs (“self-feeders”) o Able to produce their own food o Fix carbon (inorganic to organic) o Most (not all) photosynthesize o Most energy goes to respiration o Less becomes biomass Consumers o Eat other organisms o Include herbivore, predators & parasites Decomposers o consume non-living organic material o play key role in recycling matter Food Chain vs. Food Webs o Food chain = 1 possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem o Food web = all possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem o Tropic level = strata of a food chain Grazing vs. Decomposing Food Web o Grazing web Energy flow: primary producer > herbivore > carnivore Herbivore = primary consumer Carnivore = secondary, tertiary, quaternary consumer o Decomposing food web Energy flow: dead organism/waste > primary consumer (=detritivore) > secondary consumers Food Web Characteristics o Energy availability o Energy transfer Energy Availability o Production efficiency % of assimilated material that becomes new material (NPP / biomass assimilated) x 100 Varies greatly between taxa o Measure of how much energy ingested becomes biomass Week 9 – Ecosystems BIO 20C – Baldo Marinovic Energy Transfer o Tropic transfer (ecological) efficiency Overall transfer from one tropic level to another Typically around 10% o Measure of how efficient energy transfer is between tropic level Eltonian Pyramid o Depict flow of matter/energy through food chain o Graphic representation of tropic transfer efficiency o Pyramid can be constructed by Abundance Biomass Energy production per unit area/volume Ecosystem Productivity o NPP = amount of biomass available for grazers/decomposers o NPP varies between ecosystems What regulates NPP? o NPP due to photosynthesis in most ecosystem o 4 things needed for photosynthesis Sunlight, temperature, water, nutrients Terrestrial Ecosystems o Main regulatory factors Temperature Water o Soil acts to retain nutrients Aquatic Ecosystems o Main regulatory factors Light Nutrients o Nutrients are going to sink out of system Biogeochemical Cycles o Energy flower 1-way in ecosystem o Matter cycles in ecosystems o Includes C, H, N, O, P, S o Biogeochemical Bio = biotic Geo = geologic Chemical = free matter (air, water, soil) o Cycle can be local (e.g. nutrients) and globa2 (e.g. H O) Factors Affecting Biogeochemical Cycles o Type & size of reserves o Rate of movement between reserves o Interaction between different cycles Nutrient Cycle o Nutrients = N, P + vitamins & trace metals o Cycle between living tissue and inorganic forms o Often regenerated by decomposers Week 9 – Ecosystems BIO 20C – Baldo Marinovic o Cycle different in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem Global Cycle o Broad in scale o Involve exchange between atmosphere + rest of ecosystems Exception phosphorous o Unite ecosystems into giant, interconnected biosphere Ocean Acidification
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