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notes for November 16 and 30

by: Elizabeth Ronecker

notes for November 16 and 30 HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)

Elizabeth Ronecker
GPA 3.5

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notes for two week because we had two days of films
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 12/05/15
History  1200   Professor  Watts     Notes  for  November  16  and  November  30,  2015     Age  of  Rebellion  I:  the  civil  rights  movement  and  women’s  movement     Terms:  peace  corps,  nuclear  test  ban,  Jim  crow  laws,  Martin  Luther  King  Jr.,  Brown   vs.  Board  of  Education,  Montgomery  Bus  Boycott,  March  on  Washington,  Freedom   rides,  Malcolm  X,  “Black  power”,  “Long  hot  summer”,  Blank  panthers,  Betty  Friedan,   The  Femistique  Mystique,  Feminism     • 1960,  against  conformity  and  consumerism   • Started  with  JFK  election   o His  term  called  Camelot   o Called  a  breathe  of  fresh  air  (got  rid  of  stuffiness)  from  asphyxiation   o Sacrifice  to  the  nation   • Founded  the  peace  corps-­‐help  with  third  world  countries;  JFK  trying  to  make   peace   • Nuclear  test  ban-­‐stop  all  the  testing  and  creation  of  nuclear  power   • Breath  of  fresh  air  became  a  hurricane-­‐>  signal  was  JFK’s  assassination  in   1963   o JFK’s  assassination  turned  the  world  upside  down  -­‐>  age  of  rebellion   • Enormous  controversy  over  Vietnam  War   • Civil  rights  and  women’s  rights  were  for  equal  opportunity   I. Black  equality   a. Starting  to  emerge  after  WWII   b. Three  things  contributed   i. Thousands  of  black  men  and  women  served  in  the  military   ii. High  black  employment  during  the  war   iii. Ideological  factor-­‐>  war  against  fascism  had  been  seen  as  a   war  against  racial  doctrines   c. 1950s,  1  stages  of  modern  civil  rights  movement,  started  in  the   south  but  was  against  Jim  Crow  Laws   i. Created  an  apart  ide   ii. Blacks  seen  as  second  hand  citizens   d. The  black  population  was  supported  by  white  liberals  (college   kids,  clergy,  etc.)   e. Martin  Luther  King  Jr-­‐young  black  minister   i. Emerges  as  a  leader  because  of  eloquence  when  speaking   ii. Big  disciple  of  ghandi;  takes  an  idea  and  makes  it  as   American  ideology   f. There  was  civil  disobedience  to  stop  these  laws  (sit-­‐ins,  marches,   etc.)   g. Brown  vs.  Board  of  Education   i. Legal  challenge  to  stature  of  Jim  crow   ii. Supreme  court  rules  that  Jim  crow  laws  and  separate  but   equal  is  unconstitutional   iii. Becomes  the  basis  of  dozens  of  lawsuits  against  Jim  crow   laws   h. Montgomery  Bus  Boycott,  1955   i. Bus’s  were  separating  whites  and  blacks-­‐>  blacks  had  to   stand  or  sit  at  the  back  of  the  bus   ii. Rosa  Parks  go  on  the  bus  and  refused  to  sit  in  the  back;   arrested   iii. Instigated  boycott   iv. Black  riders  didn’t  ride  the  but  thus  bringing  economic   pressure  to  the  system   v. Nearly  a  year  and  eventually  the  bus  company  backs  down   vi. Successful  because  of  the  large  media  coverage   i. Freedom  Rides-­‐organized  by  civil  right  groups   i. Full  of  young  black  and  white  to  tell  of  rights;  goal  to  gain   media  coverage   ii. Backlash-­‐>  white  southerners  attacked  by  burning,   shooting  buses   iii. Brought  a  lot  of  media   j. March  on  Washington,  1963   i. Several  thousands  of  people  gather  on  the  Mall   ii. Martin  Luther  King,  Jr.  gives  “I  have  a  dream”  speech   iii. Created  a  passage  of  civil  rights  act-­‐>  cuts  discrimination   against  race   1. Withholds  funds  from  any  group  that  had   discriminated   II. Black  Radicalism   a. Certain  portion  of  young,  black  population;  got  frustrated  with   non-­‐violence  and  King   b. Malcolm  X-­‐became  a  spokesperson  for  radicals   i. Condemned  march  on  Washington  “Farce  on  Washington”-­‐ >  called  it  a  circus;  made  by  Hollywood  and  organized  by   white  people   c. Saw  in  the  news;  young  black  people-­‐>  talk  about  black  pride   instead  of  civil  rights;  black  power-­‐>  pride  against  white   d. Manifestation  of  frustration  was  called  the  “Long  Hot  Summer”   i. Violet  explosion  of  black  anger   ii. Riots,  burning,  fires   iii. Watts  area  of  LA;  explosion  and  most  of  the  area  went  up  in   smoke;  34  killed   1. Most  people  found  it  disturbing  that  they  were   chanting  “burn,  baby,  burn”   iv. Detroit;  riots  and  fires-­‐>  black  mayor  said  he  hadn’t  seen   anything  like  this  since  Berlin   e. Black  Panthers-­‐self  styled;  preached  method  of  black  separatism   i. Violence   ii. “Justice  comes  out  of  barrel  of  a  gun”   f. 1960,  radical  relations  polarized   III. The  Women’s  Movement   a. Consumerism  and  conformity-­‐>  people  most  unhappy  with  this   were  American  women’   b. Expectations  of  Middle  class  and  child  rearing   c. Reasons  for:   i. Jobs  and  employment-­‐>  many  women  working  jobs  to   support  consumer  lifestyle   ii. Divorce  rate  climbed  to  30%-­‐>  undermined  the  family  ideal   iii. Birth  control-­‐>  1960s;  young  women;  sex  was  less   dangerous;  pull  rug  out  from  an  early  marriage   d. Discontent  with  American  women   e. Betty  Freidan,  the stemmine  Mystique-­‐1963   i. When  it  1  came  out,  little  attention   ii. 1965,  caught  a  lot  of  attention;  civil  movement  pushed  it   iii. Becomes  bible;  critics  Middle  class  and  working  class   iv. Women  in  “prison”,  entire  life  devoted  to  children  and   husband   v. Women  should  get  out  into  world   f. Becomes  more  radical,  young  women   g. National  organization  of  women  for  equal  pay   h. Feminism-­‐>  women  liberation   i. Consciousness  raising   ii. Hostility  toward  men   iii. Oppressed   IV. Dilemmas  of  Dissent   a. Historical  movement;  both  very  American   i. Equal  opportunity  as  women  or  black   ii. Self-­‐fulfillment   iii. Delia  that  self-­‐fulfillment  and  identity  make  American   world   iv. Contradictory;  fuel  of  system       Age  of  Rebellion  II:  Vietnam  and  the  counterculture   Terms-­‐  counterinsurgency,  Lyndon  B.  Johnson,  Domino  theory,  Defoliation,  Mekong   Delta  Campaign,  Viet  Cong,  SDS,  Woodstock,  Yippies,  Tet  offensive,  Eugene   McCarthy,  Robert  F.  Kennedy,  George  Wallace,  1968  Democratic  Convention   • As  of  the  1960s,  unfolded,  life  was  tearing  apart   o Episodes  of  violence   o Government  in  disarray   o Lots  of  people  concerned   • In  1968,  height  of  division,  an  European  tour  company  ran  an  ad  campaign  of   “see  the  US…while  it  lasts”   • Growing  student  unrest   • Furious  debate  over  Vietnam  war-­‐>  catalyst  for  issues     I. Roots   a. Background     b. 1950,  US  had  a  policy  of  containment-­‐>  containing  expansion  of   communism   i. Focus  on  Vietnam;  separated  into  2  countries  after  WWII   1. Problem  with  the  French  since  they  had  controlled   Vietnam;  but  they  were  revolting   2. South  Vietnam  was  so  what  democratic  and  supported   by  the  allies   3. North  Vietnam  was  communist  and  supported  by  USSR   and  Red  China   4. US  vowed  that  they  would  not  fail   c. 1960s,  JFK  era-­‐>  counterinsurgency   i. Concerned  about  atomic  weapons;  threat  of  nuclear  war   ii. Wanted  to  alter  war;  but  he  was  still  very  anti-­‐communist;  just   wanted  to  change  the  tactics  used   iii. Training  guerilla  tactics;  green  beret   iv. New  weapons  that  were  not  atomic;  helicopters,  automatics   v. Sent  counterinsurgency  experts  to  help  south  Vietnamese   d. Lyndon  B.  Johnson-­‐>  president  after  JFK’s  assassination   i. 1964,  ran  for  re  election  under  a  peace  banner;  his  opponent   was  very  war  orientated   ii. Said  that  he  would  not  get  the  US  in  a  shooting  war   iii. Faces  the  issues  of  North  Vietnam,  expanding  and  LBJ  decides   that  can  not  happen  so  he  sends  more  troops  to  advise  the   South   iv. Domino  Theory-­‐  LBJ  argues  situation  in  Asia  will  be  like   st dominos;  if  Vietnam  falls  then  the  1  domino  would  be  pushed   and  more  and  more  countries  will  end  up  communist   1. Begins  to  commit  troops-­‐>  1968-­‐  ½  million  troops  on   the  ground   e. US  had  long  involvement  in  Vietnam  and  people  were  not  thinking  of   the  long  term   II. Divisions   a. 1967-­‐1969,  pattern  begins  in  Vietnam-­‐>  gap  between  expectation  and   reality   b. Military  affairs-­‐>  expectations  that  it  would  be  dominated  by  US   Technologies  and  win  the  war  in  a  short  times   i. Defoliation-­‐N.  Vietnam  didn’t  fight  using  conventional  methods   with  surprise  attacks  in  jungle;  so  the  US  decided  to  kill  trees   and  foliage  with  Agent  Orange   ii. Bombing  campaign  (1967-­‐1968)-­‐  B52  bombers  bomb  cities  to   knock  them  out;  1968-­‐  3  million  tons  dropped   iii. Search  and  destroy  missions-­‐  go  to  villages  to  Kill  Viet  Cong   iv. REALITY-­‐  guerilla  war;  Viet  Cong  melt  into  population;  Troops   couldn’t  identify  the  enemy   1. Tech  wasn’t  good  because  North  Vietnam  had  tunnels   all  over  Vietnam   v. Mekong  Delta  Campaign-­‐  the  delta  was  infested  with  Viet  Cong   and  US  thinks  to  solve  the  problem  so  they  send  in  the  best   troops  and  weapons   1. Idea  to  sweep  through  the  Delta  and  make  a  big  deal   with  TV   2. Campaign  goes  on  for  weeks;  US  kills  40-­‐50  Viet  Cong   but  burns  thousands  of  villages   3. REALITY-­‐>  not  a  lot  of  military  strategy   vi. Expectation  at  home  was  that  the  government  believed  that   people  would  get  behind  that  war  and  support   1. REALITY-­‐>  1967,  Americans  had  misgivings  about  the   war;  some  support  but  deep  divisions   vii. Problems  at  home   1. Drafts  when  people  were  unclear  about  the  war   2. TV;  people  saw  what  was  being  broadcasted  night  after   night     3. High  causality  rates;  55,000  killed  by  the  end-­‐>  high   body  bag  counts   c. 1967,  Americans  start  to  question  the  war;  suspect  that  the  US   government  is  lying  about  what  is  happening  and  their  success   III. Protests   a. Student  radicalism  in  67-­‐69;  deeply  opposed  war;  accusations  tat  US   had  become  an  imperialist  power;  sit-­‐ins;  draft  card  burnings   b. SDS-­‐Students  for  democratic  society;  became  a  clearing  house  on  US   college  campuses   c. Counterculture-­‐>  revolt  against  suburban  life   i. Hippies-­‐sex,  drug,  and  rock  and  roll   ii. Woodstock-­‐  summer  ’69;  3-­‐4  day  music  show  in  upstate  NY   iii. Youth  international  party-­‐  Yippies;  electoral  politics,  campaign   and  tour  for  their  presidential  candidate  which  was  a  pig   1. Mockery  over  American  politics   2. Platform-­‐>  LSD  in  water  supply   iv. Anti-­‐war  movement   IV. 1968   a. January  and  February  was  the  Tet  Offensive   i. Viet  Cong  against  troops;  uprising  of  North  Vietnam;  attack  on   US  embassy   ii. Indicate  that  the  progress  in  Vietnam  was  nonsense;  more   psychological  damage  than  physical   b. Great  wave  of  student  protests-­‐>  Columbia  university  takeover   c. Politics-­‐>  McCarthy  almost  beats  LBJ   i. Robert  F.  Kennedy-­‐  JFK’s  brother  runs  against  LBJ   ii. LBJ  makes  a  speech  that  said  he  was  quitting  and  not  running   for  re-­‐election   iii. George  Wallace-­‐  pro-­‐war;  anti-­‐civil  rights;  anti-­‐hippies  is   another  candidate   d. 1968,  MLK  is  assassinated;  upheaval   e. June  1968,  RFK  looked  like  he  was  going  to  be  the  democratic   candidate  but  is  assassinated   f. August  1968-­‐  Democratic  Convention-­‐>  armed  camp  that  surrounded   the  convention  in  Chicago;  many  protestors  showed  up   i. Full  blown  riot  between  police  and  protestors  


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