SPAU 3304: Week of 3-29
SPAU 3304: Week of 3-29 SPAU 3304
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
SPEECH SOUND PRODUCTION Respiration Phonation Articulation Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production Assumptions in a nutshell What we hear coming out of someone’s mouth is the result of o Generating a sound source (something vibrates) all of our vowels o Filtering that sound source using the vocal tract’s resonant properties Source and Filter operate rather independently Phonation: (focusing on the Source) o Phonation = process of producing voicing o A key source of sound o Small puffs of air that result in sound wave traveling up vocal tract Glottal Sound o Sound at the level of the larynx o Complex (quasi) periodic signal from vocal fold vibration Vocal Tract o Tube from the vocal folds to the lips o Larynx o Pharynx o Nasal Cavity o Oral Cavity Anatomy of the Larynx: Larynx: (more of a collective term) o From root of tongue to trachea o Cartilages and membranes o Level of C4 – C6 Hyoid Bone (“u” shaped; connects laryngeal structures to the tongue) Larynx Cartilages 3 UNPAIRED Cartilages: Thyroid (most anterior part of the larynx, right under the hyoid bone; protecting the vocal folds); Adam’s apple Cricoid (sits directly above the trachea) Epiglottis (leaf shaped, attaches to the medial side of the thyroid cartilage) 3 PAIRED Cartilages: Arytenoids (their movement is what moves the vocal folds; pyramid shape, sits on top of cricoid) Corniculate (sit on top of the Arytenoids) (cuneiform) **Cartilages (& Hyoid Bone): all connected by ligaments and lined with mucous membrane Other Structures: o Vestibule (supraglottic space) o Ventricular folds – FALSE VF Mucous membrane covering vestibular ligament and muscle o Ventricles: Contain mucous glands Muscles 2 Categories of Muscles Extrensic o Attachment to larynx and other attachment to another structure (helps adjust and stabilize the larynx) Suprahyoid Muscles (elevate the larynx) Infrahyoid Muscles (depress the larynx) Intrinsic o Running between interconnect cartilages o Fine control of phonation Abduct (open) or » Posterior Cricoarytenoids (PCA): opens the glottis Adduct (close) the folds. Move arytenoids to midline Rock forward » Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscles (LCA): draw arytenoids forwards and down » Interarytenoid (IA) muscles: draw arytenoids together posteriorly o Transverse o Oblique Vocal fold length and tension. Tensor (pitch changes) Elongation of the VF o Cricothyroid (pitch changes) Attached to thyroid and cricoid cartilages Rocks thyroid forward; stretching and tensing (elongating) the vocal folds o (Thyro)vocalis: the medial portion of thyroarytenoid Intrinsic Muscles (review) A. Abduction » Posterior Cricoarytenoids B. Adduction » Lateral Cricoarytenoids » Interarytenoids C. Tensor » Cricothyroid » (Thyro)vocalis helps lower pitch back down Vocal Folds o Thyroarytenoid muscle – muscle of the VF o Medial portion called thyrovocalis muscle (vocalis) » True Vocal Folds » Space between = glottis » Length of glottis 20mm x 8mm (adult M) » Posterior 2/5 more cartilaginous o Attach to arytenoid cartilages o Portion that does not vibrate » Anterior 3/5 more membranous o Vibrate to produce source of voice Vocal Fold Movement o Ab/Adduction (dependent on arytenoid movement) o Vibration (a vertical wave of motion); wave-like patterns gives us the source for speech Vocal Fold Histology: o Superficial to Deep Cellular layers Epithelium: stratified squamous cell Lamina Propria Superficial (Reinke’s space): gelatin Intermediate: elastin Deep: collagen Muscle: thyroarytenoid Three Branches of Vagus Nerve (CN X) Pharyngeal Nerve Superior Laryngeal Nerve Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Conversion Exhaled air pressure – SOUND Power supply Theories of Phonation: - Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory - Cover-Body Theory Myoelastic Theory of Phonation Myo-: muscles adduct vocal folds, establish levels of tension and elasticity Elasticity: allows vocal folds to stretch and return in each cycle (recoil) Aerodynamic: subglottal pressure from the lungs which drives vibration Physical (especially aerodynamic): forces set the vocal folds into motion in each cycle » Johaness Mueller (1858), » Janwillem van den Berg (1958) » Pulmonic air = Active force » Vocal Folds = Passive actors o Do not have nerve impulses for each vibration Bernoulli Effect: o Gas or liquid flowing through a constricted passage, has increased velocity. o Causes a decrease in the pressure of the inner sides of the constriction. What does this mean? o Recall: VF tissue is pliable o Air streaming up from lungs passes between VF o Lowers air pressure flowing through the glottis. o Brings VF toward each other **Aerodynamics allows for the vibration of the VF CAUTION: don’t confuse… Abduction/Adduction o Vocal folds position by movement of the cricoarytenoid joints Opening/Closing of the vocal folds during vibration o Aerodynamic forces and biomechanics of VF Sequence of VF Vibration: 1. Folds in adducted position due to muscular efforts of adducters 2. Subglottal pressure (Ps) builds-up Subglottal > supraglottal pressure 3. Pressure causes vocal folds to slightly part (starting at the bottom) 4. Pressure drops as air flows through glottis 5. Bernoulli effect draws folds back together again **Ps forces vocal folds apart in “wave-like” motion Vertical phasing » In addition to vertical phasing… » Also, anterior-posterior phasing
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