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Week 13 Notes

by: Alexandra Cummins

Week 13 Notes FSCN 1112

Alexandra Cummins
U of M
GPA 3.97
Principles of Nutrition
Mashek, Douglas

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of the material on exam 3. Pregnancy and nutrition during growing years are covered.
Principles of Nutrition
Mashek, Douglas
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 12/06/15
Pregnancy Gestation from conception to birth Favorable outcomes 0 40 weeks gestation less than 37 9s considered preterm 0 baby should be bigger than 55 average is 751bs conception fertilization of the egg zygote fertilized egg implantation egg attaches to the wall of the uterus embryo zygote after 2 weeks zygote 0 all start from a single cell stem cells become 3 parts I endoderm innermost layer creates internal organs liver GI tract I mesoderm middle layer forms muscles skeleton I ectoderm outer layer forms skin and nervous system I amnion membrane that encloses zygote becomes amniotic sac fetus embryo after 8 weeks spontaneous abortion naturally occurring if something is not right less than 20 weeks nervous system is one of the first systems to develop bone and muscle develop much later on placenta the organ surrounding the fetus allows for nutrient uptake waste removal umbilical cord connection between mother and fetus nutritional needs 0 energy needs more energy 450 cal needed later in pregnancy especially during the third trimester 0 Dutch famine study energy restriction on mother during pregnancy increases risk of diseases later in life 0 More protein is needed during the last trimester 0 Essential fatty acids DHA are needed to improve brain development 0 Folate and vitamin 312 are needed to prevent neural tube defects take supplements 0 Iron most women are already low in iron anemia is common during pregnancy 0 Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone and tooth growth 0 Prenatal supplements not proven to be supper effective but still not a bad thing 0 Exercise is benefitial I Helps protect against gestational diabetes when the baby takes nutrients that should go to the mother 0 Avoid dehydration physical damage high intensity exercise 0 The mother should gain about 2535 lbs spread between the growing fetus blood breasts fat stores Factors affecting pregnancy outcome 0 Bodyweight being underweight or overweight can lead to problems with delivery and fetus development Age diseases for babies increase with age down syndrome increases with mother s age Maternal eating patterns avoid unusual diets vegetarians have special needs Maternal health I Pregnancies should be spaced out to build up nutritional reserves I HIV can be transferred to the baby I Pregnancy induced hypertension increased blood pressure I Gestational diabetes Maternal socioeconomic factors programs from the government are put in place to make sure pregnant women get the food they need Maternal food supply minimize exposure to bad things food additives caffine Maternal lifestyle avoid alcohol drugs smoking Fetal programing I Epigenome methyl groups attach to DNA to change gene expression partially managed by diet I Expressed for generations Physiological changes 0 O O O Heartburn crowded abdomen avoid by eating small meals Constipation affected by hormones and diet Nausea and vomiting hormone changes excessive chronic morning sickness can be bad Edema swelling Lactation O 0000 Colostrum first milk produced the baby s first meal high in antibodies Transitional milk after colostrum lasts about 1 week Mature milk higher in carbs and lipids Oxytocin involved in muscle relaxation milk letdown Prolactin stimulates milk production I Bot controlled by hypothalamus and pituitary gland Factors I Obesity can decrease yields I Young mothers they need nutrition for growth too I Sociocultural factors breastfeeding while working is often an issue I Lifestyle drugs smoking alcohol diet all in uences milk taste Factors stopping breastfeeding I Insufficient milk supply O O I Sore nipples I Can t let down milk stress I Engorgement breasts are too full I Blocked milk ducts I Infection mastitis I Work job I Poor infant weight gain Nutritional needs of breastfeeding I Water I Calories I Food choices oily fish DHA decrease intake of allergens peanuts Benefits for the mother I Decreases breast and ovarian cancer I Bonding I Saving money no need to buy formula I Weight loss I Reduced risk of postpartum depression I Quicker recovery Nutrition during growing years Body composition 0 O 0 First year babies gain a lot of weight During adolescence most fat is lost in boys The brain is mostly developed by age 2 Nutrient needs 0 O 0 00000 Infants and children need more vitamin D that adults Energy per pound infants need more energy than adults they are growing but they also loose a lot of energy for heat Infants need more protein Fat 50 of an infant s calories should be from fat especially essential fatty acids Carbs kids need lots of energy carbs can be a good source Water infants have much higher water needs partially because of their higher metabolic rate Milk formula or breast milk has all of the nutrients a baby needs I Infants should not be fed anything else while they are drinking milk Iron babies are born with stores but they get depleted after 4 months teens are also susceptible to anemia Calcium needed for bone development Fluoride important for tooth growth Zinc and folate are also important Vitamin D increased demand in infants Vitamin K injected at birth to supplement stores until gut bacteria start producing Feeding babies 0 Breastfeed for at least 6 months 0 Breast milk contains all the nutrients a baby needs 0 Antibodies enzymes transfer to babies 0 Proteins are more digestible in mother s mil formula I Cow s milk should be avoided 0 Protein in breast milk increases iron absorption Breast milk feeding for baby 0 Increased brain development Increased immunity Reduced chance of developing allergies Decreased risk of metabolic diseases Oral development 0 Development of better eating habits Formula based on mother s milk but still not perfect Feeding babies 0 Don t overfeed o SIDS sudden infant death syndrome reduce by placing baby on back 0 Preparing bottles I Breast milk can be stored or frozen easily I Don t microwave or mix with formula When to introduce solid foods 0 Nutritional needs can be met with solid food at 6 months 0 Physiological physical capabilities must be met baby should be able to chew swallow keep its head up 0 Introduce foods one at a time 0 Avoid allergens peanuts eggs honey and salty sweet food 0 By 18 months the baby should be completely off the bottle Children s appetites 0 Very erratic tastes change 0 Avoid rewards desserts leads to bad eating habits 0 Exposure to a wide variety of foods is good 0 O O O


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