Learning Week 6 notes
Learning Week 6 notes Psyc 4450
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Heitmann on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 4450 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Christopher L. Hubbell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Week of March 28 Instrumental Conditioning: Introduction VI. Stimulus Control a. The Concept of Stimulus Control i. The idea that when a reinforcer appears it automatically strengthens the behavior that precedes it is misleading ii. Guttman and Kalish (1956) 1. Pigeons trained to peck a key for food on VI schedule 2. 30 minute training sessions 3. Key illuminated a yellowish orange color (580 nm) 4. Test: vary the wavelength of light in key and measure responses 5. Pigeons demonstrated stimulus controlled behavior iii. Jenkins and Harrison (1960) 1. Used same procedure as Guttman and Kalish, but used a 1000 Hz tone instead of a light 2. Experiment 1: a. Tone had no effect on behavior and the pigeons pecked a the key at the same rate at different tones b. Never taught to discriminate that the tone signals food will appear c. Tone didn’t mean anything 3. Experiment 2: a. Tone was on for 30 sec and off for 30 sec b. Pecking when on got a reinforcer (s+) c. Pecking when off got nothing (s-) d. Saw stimulus control b. Encouraging generalization i. Provide training in multiple settings so response occurs wherever the stimulus occurs c. Encouraging Discrimination i. Confine reinforcement of response to a particular situation VII. Preliminary Applications a. Dicky’s Glasses i. 9 month old with cataracts, needed glasses to see but wouldn’t wear them ii. Diagnosed with childhood schizophrenia (autism) iii. Wolf, Risely, and Mees (1964) 1. Reinforcement to get Dicky to wear glasses 2. Associated noise with candy 3. Noise presented when Dicky made a response towards putting on his glasses 4. Needed to deprive him of food completely in order to get him to put them on 5. Shaped drive b. The Importance of Gradual Change i. Sidman and Stoddard (1967) 1. Taught mentally disabled children to tell the difference between a circle and an ellipse 2. Group 1: trained with just the final task a. Pick the circle in the grid filled with ellipses and get the reward 3. Group 2: experienced fading procedure a. First shown a mostly blacked out grid with one square containing a circle i. Rest of the square fades to white as position of the circle changes b. Ellipse outline faded into blank grid with circle still changing positions 4. Results: a. Group 1: 1 in 10 kids could discriminate between a circle and an ellipse after 180 trials b. Group 2: 7 in 10 kids could discriminate between a circle and an ellipse after 20 trials The effectiveness of a reinforcer depends on amount, delay, schedule, deprivation conditions, stimuli present and difficulty of the problem Instrumental Conditioning: Details I I. Punishment a. Methodological Issues i. Positive reinforcement: an increase in the probability of a response due to the presentation of an appetitive stimulus ii. Negative reinforcement: an increase in the probability of a response due to the removal of an adversive stimulus iii. Positive punishment: the decrease in the probability of a response due to the presentation of an adversive stimulus iv. Negative punishment: the decrease in the probability of a response due to the removal of an appetitive stimulus b. Punishment in Animals i. During extinction, if punishment were to occur, extinction would happen faster 1. Boe and Church: shocked rats during extinction which lead to faster extinction ii. Intensitymore intense, the faster extinction iii. Delayshorter the delay, the faster the extinction iv. ScheduleCRF v. Stimulus Controlwill eventually only respond in certain circumstances c. Punishment in Humans i. Follows the same rules as animals ii. More intense iii. Immediate iv. Consistent v. Explanation helps to understand punishment and stop the behavior II. Side Effects a. Traumatic Example of Punishment i. Masserman and Pechtel (1953) 1. Rhesus and Spider monkeys 2. Took monkeys from a colony and taught them to bar press for food 3. Punished for bar pressing by waving a snake over food when it appeared after the bar press a. Monkeys would no longer bar press and wouldn’t accept food in the room b. Eating habits in the colony were affected c. Lost interest in sex d. Became submissive to weaker members of the colony b. Fear i. Animals become afraid and anxious around the place where punishment occurs c. Aggression i. Pain Elicited Aggression 1. Rats in the same box will start to box if the floor is shocked ii. Modelled Aggression 1. Children are more likely to show aggression towards something that adults have shown aggression towards 2. Copying a certain behavior d. Evaluating Aggression i. Punishment is an effective tool in shaping behavior ii. Punishment produces unwanted side effects iii. Sometimes it is better to encourage a related good behavior rather than punish the bad behavior III. Extinction a. Practical Application i. Williams (1950) 1. Child was sick for 2 years, parents doted on him 2. Child threw tantrums at bed time in order to get both parents to sit in the room with him 3. Told parents to ignore tantrums and they stopped b. Extinction as Punishment i. Not getting a reward can be seen as punishment ii. Extinction induced aggression 1. Put pigeons in a chamber together 2. 1 was free and could peck the key, one was not 3. When light was off and pecking the key didn’t elicit a reward, the free pigeon started to attack the chained pigeon iii. Frustration Effect 1. When extinction starts, there is a short period of time when response increases suddenly, then drops into extinction a. Called the extinction burst or frustrative non- rewarded responding IV. The Partial Reinforcement Effect a. The Discrimination Hypothesis i. The amount of responding during extinction depends upon the similarity of the stimuli present to those present during training ii. The more demanding the reinforcement schedule, the harder it is to extinguish the behavior 1. Harder to discriminate that something has changed in the environment b. Capaldi’s Sequential Model i. Extension of discrimination hypothesis ii. A non-reward is a stimulus event iii. Memory as a stimulus event N 1. S non-rewarded stimulus 2. Group 1: RRR (CRF) 3. Group 2: NRNRNR (FR2) 4. Group 3: NNNRNNNRNNNR (FR4) 5. Group 1 has not association between S and reward 6. Groups 2 and 3 have strengthened this connection iv. N-R Transition 1. How often was a non-reward followed by a reward v. N length 1. The number of non-reinforcement trials creates a memory event that is associated with the reinforcement 2. A different number of non-reinforcement events gets a different memory vi. Implications 1. Subjects can remember many trials 2. Response can be generalized vii. New Predictions 1. Group 1: RNR 2. Group 2: RRN 3. Discrimination hypothesis predicts that each group will be extinguished at the same rate 4. Capaldi predicted that group 2 will be extinguished faster because the non-reinforcement trial was not then reinforced Instrumental Conditioning: Details II I. Reinforcement in the classroom a. Classroom behavior i. Hall, Lund and Jackson (1968) 1. Robby: 3 grader, troublemaker in the classroom 2. Baseline Measurement-7days a. Robby spent 25% of the time doing school work b. Good behavior was ignored, while bad behavior was punished 3. Reinforcement Phase I-9 days a. Appropriate behavior was praised, bad behavior was ignored b. Spent 80% of the time on schoolwork 4. Reversal Phase-5 days a. Good behavior ignored, bad behavior punished b. Time spent on schoolwork decreased to 50% 5. Reinforcement Phase II-10 days a. Same as Phase I b. Spent 80% of time on schoolwork 6. Follow up 14 weeks later a. Still spending 80% of time on schoolwork b. Robby’s good behavior had reinforced a new behavior in the teacher to reinforce good behavior and ignore bad b. Teaching Sports i. Allison and Ayllon (1980) 1. How to get college students interested in physical education 2. Taught them how to serve a tennis ball a. Method 1: the traditional approach i. Explanation and demonstration, then a practice period b. Method 2: reinforcement i. Explanation and demonstration then go practice ii. Correct serve reinforced and incorrect techniques punished 1. Made class stop while incorrect way was corrected a. Humiliation in front of classpunishment b. Created secondary reinforcement by showing the correct way to do it c. The Token Economy i. Tokens become a secondary reinforcer ii. Given immediately after good behavior, but do not interrupt the behavior iii. Will work to get more tokens