SPAU/CLDP 3305: WEEK of 3-28
SPAU/CLDP 3305: WEEK of 3-28 spau 3305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to spau 3305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by E. Touchstone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Writing Environment - Types of writing and reasons for it. - Apply the invitation method again: o Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Characteristics of the Individual Writer: Motivational Factors/Aspects of Writing o Writing is goal-directed o Fostering positive attitudes? (will have a lasting effect) Knowledge structures in long term memory o Task-schemas o Topic knowledge o Know your audience o Knowledge of genre o Knowledge of language o Age is a factor in all areas (not just age, but experience will change over time) Writing-Specific cognitive processes o Text interpretation o Reflection (coming up with a plan on how to execute) cognitive process o Text production (writing out your intent) Components of working memory o For writing: Formulation (planning) – remembering the content language enough to get/write it down ((mental process)) Execution (translation) – act of writing ((muscle memory)) Monitoring (revising) – hardest (we are all bad monitors) **Again, age is a factor** Motivational Aspects of Writing Research Mueller and Oppenheimer Should you take your notes or write them out in longhand? o Writing: you encode the important parts Neuroscience Basis Brain research Writing deficits in adults with brain injury: (writing is affected the most) o Word retrieval o Grammatical function o Memory o Handwriting o Visual field cuts DYSLEXIA - “is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction…” Core concepts: o Language based specific learning disability o Reading accuracy and fluency o Spelling/writing o Phonological processing Core deficits: o Difficulty with written language is unexpected o Occurs along a continuum o Persists throughout the lifetime; not a developmental delay, it can get better over time but still have weaknesses Prevalence & Comorbidities - Most common learning disability (1:5 people struggle with reading, studies estimate 5 – 17.5% are dyslexic) - Most common in boys than girls… Boys tend to be more often referred - Found in all languages and cultures Genetic and environmental factors Genetic: o Runs in families (up to 50% chance) o Neurobiological differences Environmental: o Interest/Motivation o Family literacy – how often parents read with children, number of books in home **Both genetic and environmental are important factors Signs & Symptoms Phonological level: Phonological Awareness » Rapid Naming (fast naming of objects), related to reading ability » Deletion o Say “cat” without saying “k” o Say “blimp” without saying “b” Word level: » Decoding – single words i.e. Bob books, word recognition-irregular words, common words » Spelling Connected text: » Fluency – how many words read? How many errors? » Comprehension – often (but not always) a relative strength o Visual tracking and attention – less efficient at visual screening o Sequencing – first, then last Inversions 314/413, on/no o Dictionality – p/q/b/d/m/w o Characteristics – phonetic spellings, inconsistencies, substitutions, reversals Language and attention: Oral language problems – late talkers, mispronunciations, word retrieval problems Attention – primary ADHD, secondary – effortful reading drains attention Diagnostic Models: Traditional methods – IQ reading discrepancy, low achievement Alternative methods – dynamic assessment, response to intervention Types of dyslexia: Acquired dyslexia o Visual word form dyslexia – analyzing visual features, the actural form of the word o Central dyslexia – later processing (phonology, semantics) occurs after brain processes the visual features of the word Developmental dyslexia o Deep “phonological” dyslexia – trouble sounding out words o Surface “orthographic” dyslexia – reading irregular/sight words Central vs. Visual Word Form - Neurological differences and patterns o Nonimpared vs. dyslexic Posterior reading systems critical for fluent, skilled reading Under-activation of these systems considered hallmark of reading disability How is it treated? NPR report: 5 areas of effective instruction 1. PA 2. Phonics 3. Vocabulary 4. Fluency 5. Comprehension Explicit, multisensory instruction is key Role of repeated practice Treatment outcomes Closing the gap – with treatment, many reading skills do improve, word level reading skills, less robust improvements in fluency Treatment resisters