Week of November 30th
Week of November 30th BIO 106 - M001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
OVER HARVESTING History of shing Goes back at least 40000 years 0 Ancient Greeks and Egyptians had sophisticated shing methods 0 Le ancient sh hooks Importance of sh 0 1 of total food supply for humans 0 50 currently from aquaculture o 50 of what people are eating is actually caught in the open ocean 18 of all animal protein consumed by humans cod and mackerel shery have long history in US Fisheries the commercial practice of catching processing and selling sh or seafood products 0 populations or subpopulations of a particular sh species 0 Related more to biodiversity Fisheries are big business 0 54 billion in sh and invertebrate landings in 2014 o 87 of landings were n sh 0 top most pro table sh species 1 Salmon 2 Pollock 3 Flat sh 4 Cod public perception and marketing 0 squid gt calamari o dolphin sh gt mahimahi o Patagonian tooth sh gt Chilean sea bass 0 Slimehead gt orange roughy Fishing right in the ocean 0 Each country Modern shing methods Gill nets Purse seine sets a whole net and uses strings to pull the net into a bowllike shape and collect schools of sh 0 Longline hooks with bait Trawls net hooked to a boat scoops shes as boat moves The cod shery 1951 supertrawlers were a trend would catch large amounts of cod 1992 stock collapsed little recovery until very recently Climate and sheries Anchovies o the major shery in Peru sheries o 102 million tons in 1971 0 after over shing during an El Ni o season the population coHapsed OVER HARVESTING 0 major economic impact on the country s economy Successful Fisheries 0 Maine banned taking eggs bearing female lobsters in 1972 0 Series of regulations to conserve lobster population 0 quotVnotchquot system 0 minimum size 0 maximum size 0 trap and tag limits The shifting baseline syndrome 0 each generation of sheries scientists accepts as a baseline the stock size and species composition that occurred at the beginning of their career and uses this to evaluate the changes declining body size of sh 0 world marine catch has been attening Reversing over shing stopping shing consumers can be selective about choices of sh they eat Fish farming today half of the seafood eaten in the US is farmed 0 environmental impact of sh farming varies Factors species farmed farming method location Types of mariculture Open mariculture farming takes place under natural conditions 0 Eg cages that oat in natural bodies of water 0 Intensive mariculture high growth by controlling environment Seeding eggs hatches in captivity fry released to ocean later recaptured after grow to maturity Bycatch the unintended capture or entanglement of species in shing gear Nontarget species sea turtles sea birds marine mammals sharks rays skates n sh 0 Whale entanglement large whales can get wrapped in lines from shing gear can lead to serious injury and death Solutions to the future 0 Marine protected areas and timearea restrictions 0 Changes to shing practices or gear Bycatch quotas having observers on a boat documenting the number of bycatch organisms 0 Market demand 0 Return to traditional sea tenure in small scale sheries Whaling 0 History 0 oldest evidence of whaling is etched in walrus ivory from 2000 year old sites on St Lawrence Island Alaska OVER HARVESTING 0 commercial exploitation of right whales started in the 12th century 0 primary products were oil from blubber candles from spermaceti o whaling lasted until the advent of the petroleum industry in 1859 0 modern whaling started in 1904 in Antarctica o invention of grenade harpoon and use of powered vessels from 1864 0 primary products were oil for margarine and much later meat sequential overharvest o whalers originally started with blue whales and humpbacks but when they became rare they had to shift to smaller species in order from largest to smallest n sperm sei minke Whaling legal regulation 0 1925 rst concern regarding whaling by League of Nations 0 1986 when whaling was banned POLLUTION IN THE OCEAN Trash in the Ocean Dumping trash could potentially travel across the world due to the 5 oceans connectedness Trash dump for humans for 1000 s of years Sources of Marine Pollution noise runoff sewage chemicals metals and radioactive substances oil garbage biological only 4 of the ocean is unaffected by human activity Where Does Pollution Come from 0 Land 0 80 of marine pollution comes from land based activities 0 direct discharge and riverine ows 0 Air 0 Global atmospheric inputs to the sea 0 Sea 0 Discharge from ships accidental spills and dumping both legal andiHegaD Sewage 0 Point source pollution o Detectable levels of human drugs can be found in the ocean 0 Varying degrees of treatment Adds nutrients and chemicals to the ocean Runoff 0 Nonpoint source pollution Pollution that comes from lots of different places 0 Combination of multiple sources that wash into the ocean o Fertilizers and pest control chemicals 0 Oil grease and toxic uids 0 Sediments I Can block light and kill organisms 0 Acid drainage from abandoned mines and o Bacteria and nutrients Impacts of Runoff Beach closures 0 Elevated levels of things that could be toxichazardous to people 0 Drinking water contamination Agricultural runoff and waterborne organisms cause disease and death in important sh stocks 0 gt13 of the shell shgrowing waters are adversely affected by coastal poHqun Formation of Dead Zones areas in the ocean where levels of oxygen in the water is lower than what s necessary to sustain life 0 a healthy situation is where there s enough photosynthesis to regulate the oxygen and there s a smaller quotalgal bloomquot POLLUTION IN THE OCEAN dead zones can be seasonal dead zone in Gulf of Mexico 0 one of the largest in the world 0 due to input of chemical runoff and nutrients o massive amounts of crabs and sh wash up on shore due to dead zones 0 dead zones are spreading across the world Black sea Gulf of Mexico Asia US Harmful Algal Blooms produce toxins can show up by color 0 increased nutrients can cause blooms of toxinproducing phytoplankton 0 Not all red algal blooms are harmful and not all harmful algal blooms are red Impacts include 0 Human illness 0 Economic losses 0 Fish bird and mammal mortalities 0 Increasing in frequency Toxic Chemicals Metals and Radiation Metals 0 Act as cumulative toxins bioaccumulation 0 Can impact people when consumed ie consumption of Mercury Cadmium Lead and Copper 0 Pesticides 0 Designed to kill terrestrial insects but can be toxic to marine life in the ocean Toxic chemicals 0 PCD is used in industrial activities and can cause cancer bioaccumulate in the ocean Nuclear Waste 0 Radiation in the ocean 0 Paci c Proving Grounds testing nuclear weapons from 19461962 banned in 1963 0 Detection of Nuclear Waste Water 0 Determined by how much Cesium134 and Cesium137 is present 0 Levels detected in the ocean are more than 1000 times lower than acceptable limits in drinking water Bioaccumulation o Radioactivity falls into the ocean gt taken up by phytoplankton gt eventually falls to the sea oor gt eaten by sh squid Fukushima Reactor Leak 0 March 12th nuclear meltdown at Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant POLLUTION IN THE OCEAN 0 July 22nol power plant was leaking radioactive water into the Paci c Ocean 0 Radiation levels were relatively low Oil Spills Effects of Exxon Valdes Spill 0 Killed o 100000250000 seabirds 0 2800 sea otters o 12 river otters o 300 harbor seals 0 longterm reduction in many wildlife populations Deepwater Horizon 0 deepwater horizon was a deepwater drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico 1259m water depth 0 48 million barrels of oil leaked until well capped on July 15th 0 a lot of the oil went much deeper than what was seen at the surface 0 Effects 0 1000 miles of coastal wetland ruined o shery closures decreased production by 20 o 817 bottlenose dolphin deaths Marine Debris plastic is accumulated in the marine environment because it is hard to break down 0 locations beaches and shorelines water column sea oor sources of marine debris 0 land litter and waste 0 sea ships and atsea platforms 0 quotGreat Paci c Garbage Patchquot 0 smaller than a grain of rice and make up 90 of plastic in the ocean Marine Debris and Human Health 0 public safety 0 beach contamination 0 large debris as a hazard to navigation seafood contamination transport of pathogens threat to ocean health Solutions to Pollution in the Ocean 0 Correction 0 Costly and time intensive 0 Only feasible for pointsource pollution 0 Prevention 0 Requires increased awareness and attitude changes Pollution may cause irreversible changes to the world s oceans POLLUTION IN THE OCEAN PREVENTION is the best course for the future Clicker questions 0 Longterm quotdead zonesquot in the ocean fertilizer runoff 0 Oil that remained in the ocean in 2010 after the Exxon Valdez oil spill 23000 0 The levels of radiation released from the Fukushima reactor pose a signi cant health threat in the waters off California False What percentage of the world s oceans are not considered to be impacted by human activities 4 0 Most of the plastics in the ocean fall into which of the following size class lt5mm
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