Chapter 2 COMD 3385- Speech Science
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lara on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMD 3385- Speech Science at University of Houston taught by Ferenc Bunta in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Speech Science in Language at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Phona on Conversion of air pressure to sound TWO ways of transforming of air into speech sounds use air pressure to set elastic vocal folds in the larynx into vibrationgtproducing a periodic repeated pattern sound wave allow air to pass through the larynx into the upper vocal tractarea between vocal folds to lips or nostrilsgt modifies airflowhisses bursts or aperiodic wavesno repeated pattern Myoelastic aerodynamic theory of phonation phonatory mode vocal folds are brought together and are vibrating theory by Husson vocal folds vibrated due to individual nerve impulses sent to vocalis muscle Accepted theory Myoelastic aerodynamic theory of phonation vocal folds are activated by the airstream from the lungs rather than by nerve impulses Myoelastic muscles control the elasticity and tension of vocal folds in order to set a vibration and changes can be made in their frequency of vibration fundamental frequency of vibration number of times the vocal folds are apart and return together persecond men voice 125 frequency 17 to 24 mm length of vocal folds women can be greater than 200 frequency 13 to 17 mm length of vocal folds kids can be higher than 300 frequency vocal fold size is a factor larger length and vibrating mass of vocal folds lower frequency MASS amp TENSION are more important than length in determining frequency more tense if stretchedgt less massgt higher frequency Myoelastic theory39s factors of the vibratory cycle are aerodynamic 1air pressure from lungs blows through vocal foldsgtglottis is open during each vibration 2 vocal folds return together a muscles must keep vocal folds adducted during phonation b inherent elasticity of folds c sudden drop in air pressure below folds as they are forced apart another theory coverbody theory cover overlies a body of mostly muscle fibers vibration depends on activity of intrinsic laryngeal muscles Framework of the larynx Job of the larynx is A control flow of air into and out of the lungsgt oxygen in and carbon dioxide out B prevent substances like water or food from entering the lungs C help with swallowing D allow buildup of pressure within thorax for coughingvomiting defecating lifting heaw objects Location is below hyoid boneunder jaw and top of tracheaunder cricoid cartilage anterior to lower pharynx epiglottis covers entrance to the larynx Study diagrams to get a good understanding of where thyroid cricoid and arytenoid cartilages are and along with muscles thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx Vocal fold adjustments during speech Folds at rest are vshaped the apex is behind the thyroid cartilage widest part of separation is in the back during voiceless speech sounds like s and t the folds are separated during voiced speech sounds like u and i folds are adductedclose during voiced consonants like z folds are less firmly brought together Voiceless consonants folds abduct for air to pass from lungs to the oral cavity for sound to be created Sub glottal air pressure Phonation threshold pressure elevated sub glottal air pressure each opening results in a bit of air being released and cut by the folds closing phonation is possible only when air pressure below folds is exceeding the pressure above the folds Bernoulli effect The pressure is higher below the folds than above so the pressure drops after air was released through the glottis Vocal fold vibration During sustained vowels folds open and close periodically higher harmonics have less intensity compared to lower harmonics frequency number of glottal cycles per second Fundamental frequency speaker39s pitch is dependent on the lowest frequency in their voice different intonation patterns is due to frequency of vocal fold vibration thicker vocal folds vibrate better than short and thin folds elasticity tension mass of the vocal folds determine the frequency of vocal fold vibration tense folds are easier to vibrate cricothyroid muscles responsible for stretching the vocal folds and control frequency change only intrinsic laryngeal muscle is innervated in from superior laryngeal nerve sternohyoid muscle helps in lowering the frequency suprahyoid muscle elevates the larynx infra hyoid muscle lower the larynx lowering the larynx decreases the tension in the conus elasticity