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Week 12 lecture notes

by: AJ Ponte

Week 12 lecture notes PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
General Psychology
Ines Segert

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About this Document

These notes cover topics related to social psychology.
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
Week 12 Notes Social Psych o How people think about influence and relate to other people 0 How do we explain behavior 0 How do we form impressions of others 0 How does the presence of others influence our behavior 0 What leads to prejudice and discrimination Attribution how we explain our behavior Types of Attribution o PersonalInternal or Dispositional 0 Refer to things within people such as abilities moods or efforts 0 Used when we do something good o SituationalExternal 0 Refer to outside events such as luck accidents or the actions of others 0 Studies with servers to explain why they got large tips vs small tips 0 Large tip the server will say they gave great service 0 Small tip the server will say the costumer was a jerk Fundamental Attribution Error 0 Occurs when we try to explain someone else s behavior 0 Consistent tendency to o Overemphasize the importance of personal traits o Underestimate the importance of a situation when explaining another s behavior o If another server got a bad tip the other server would say they were a bad server SelfServing Bias 0 Our failures are attributed to situational unstable or uncontrollable factors in a way that casts us in a positive light 0 Our successes are attributed to personal permanent factors in a way that gives us credit for doing well 0 Clinically depressed people are proven to switch these habits Power of the situation 0 Idea that behavior is influenced by environment factors even though we focus on personal traits for explanation o Zimbardo Prison Study test or situational vs personal factors 0 College students were put into 2 randomly assigned groups prison guards and inmates 0 Put into a simulated prison Week 12 Notes 0 Study only ended up lasting for 6 days because conditions got so extreme Summary of Study 0 Initially there were no differences between the two groups at the beginning 0 How the subjects developed identities o Deindividuation o Risky shiftpolarization extreme ends 0 Footinthe door 0 Conformity o Escalation 0 Implications for the real world 0 Abu Ghraib prison tortured their prisoners 0 BBC did a similar study to the Stanford experiment and got different results 0 Attributions o Guards explained their behavior as they were just doing their job external or that the prisoners were weak 0 Prisoners explained the guard behavior by calling them jerks o Prisoners explained their own behavior by they were being forced to do it o Guards explained the prisoners behavior as they were being passive 0 Conclusions 0 Was it just the situation Or did different personalities take hold 0 Generalizability would this always happen again No Eichmann Trial April 1961 III 0 He was a Nazi war criminal seemingly quotnorma on the outside blamed all attributions on external factors 0 He was ordered by someone higher up 0 Found guilty Conformity o Altering one s behavior and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people s expectations Asch Conformity Study 0 6 subjects 5 actors and 1 real subject 0 All had to choose the correct size of line that matched the one shown Results 0 The more people in the group the more likely you are to conform 0 With actors present 75 of subjects gave incorrect answers at least once Week 12 Notes 0 Control group no actors present 2 gave the incorrect answer 0 Conditions promoting conformity 0 Social norms expected standard of conduct 0 Larger group size 0 Group unanimity Why we conform o Normative influence occurs when we go along with the crowd to avoid looking foolish o Informative influence occurs when we assume that behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond Vocab terms 0 Compliance agreeing to a request made by others 0 Ex McDonalds strip search ordeal o Footinthe door start with small tasks and increase to larger ones 0 Door in face ask for a larger request then when refused ask a smaller request that will very likely be accepted 0 Obedience following orders of an authority figure 0 Ex Stanley Milgram Experiment I Over 50 of subjects gave the deadly shock Social Facilitation o Tendency for people to perform better on simple tasks when in the presence of others 0 Zajonc s Model 0 Presence of others can enhance or decrease performance 0 Enhance if dominant response is relatively easy 0 Impair if the dominant response is difficult Social Loafing 0 People work less hard when in a group than when working alone 0 Prevented by monitoring individual efforts 0 Ex n tug of war people pull less when they have more people on the team Deindividuation o A state of reduced individuality reduced selfawareness and reduced attention to personal standards 0 Increased when anonymity is present and responsibility is diffused 0 Ex Yik Yak promotes anonymity Week 12 Notes Group Decision Making Riskyshift Effect 0 Decisions made by a group tend to be more risky or extreme than ones made by individuals Main and Walker 1973 Study 0 Analyzed 1500 decisions of Federal district court judges sitting either alone or in groups of three 0 Alone extreme course of action was only taken 30 of the time 0 Groups of three extreme action was taken 65 of the time Group polarization 0 Exaggeration of initial position overtime 0 Group starts out neutral then the initial attitude of one or a few members determines if the group position becomes riskier or more cautious Group Think o The fear of speaking out against the group decision 0 Ex When the challenger exploded later many said they did not agree with the launch but did not speak out against the group decision


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