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Lecture 7

by: Sierra

Lecture 7 FNR 348


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Chemical Immobilization
Wildlife Investigational Techniques
Elizabeth A. Flaherty
Class Notes
wildlife, investigational techniques, forestry, Natural Resources
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 348 at Purdue University taught by Elizabeth A. Flaherty in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Investigational Techniques in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
2/7/16& Chemical&Immobiliza3on&of& Wildlife& 18&February&2016& Learning&Objec3ves& •  Define&chemical&immobiliza3on& •  Describe&when&we&would&use&chemical& immobiliza3on&and&the&pros&and&cons&of&using&it.& •  Iden3fy&the&proper3es&of&the&ideal&drug&for& immobiliza3on.& •  Understand&the&proper3es&and&limita3ons&of&the& drugs&most&commonly&used.& •  Describe&how&to&safely&administer&drugs.& •  Describe&the&various&animal&welfare& considera3ons&for&chemical&immobiliza3on.& •  Calculate&dosage&of&drugs& 2& Chemical) Immobiliza.on:) 3& 1& 2/7/16& Why)Use)Chemical)Immobiliza.on) Handle&a&wild&animal&in&a&manner&that:& •  Inflicts&least&amount&of&stress&and&pain&to&animal& •  Has&least&risk&of&injury&to&both&animal&and&handler& Requires:& •  Pa3ence& •  Humaneness& •  Animal&care& •  Personal&safety& 4& When&Should&Chemical&Immobiliza3on& Be&Used?& When)all)other)means)of) restraint)are)insufficient) Does&the&need&to&capture&or& handle&this&animal&jus3fy& risking&this&animal’s&life?& Commonly&used&for&a&variety& of&species& –  Carnivores& –  Ungulates& –  Small&mammals& –  Herpetofauna& 5& Pros) Research& –  AZaching&radio&collars,&ear& tags,&etc.& –  Taking&blood&or&other& samples& –  Moving&an&animal&from& one&loca3on&to&another& Less&trauma&during&handling& –  Risk&of&injury&and&stress& decreased& 6& 2& 2/7/16& Cons& Can’t&determine& phys&ological&health& Risks&to&animal& –  Physical&injury& –  Medical&complica3ons& –  Fleeing&animals& •  Heat&build&up&in&muscles& •  Reduced&reac3on&to&drug& –  Suscep3bility&to&preda3on& –  Can&cause&social&stress& •  Change&dominance&hierarchies& •  Neonates&may&be&rejected& 7& Cons& Risks&to&humans& –  Risk&from&animals&before&they&are&immobilized& –  Risk&from&accidental&exposure&to&drugs& Cost& –  Drugs& –  Equipment& & & 8& Proper3es&of&the&Ideal&Immobilizing&Agent& Suitable)for)all)species) Predictable)ac.on)with)wide)safety)margin) –  High&Therapeu3c&Index&(TI)& •  LD&50&=&lethal&dose&at&which&50%&of&treated&animals&die& •  ED&50&=&effec3ve&dose&at&which&50%&of&animals&show&desired& effects& •  TI&=&LD&50/ED&50& Produces)rapid)onset)of)disorienta.on)and) immobiliza.on) –  Induc3on&3me&f&Time&interval&from&injec3on&un3l& immobiliza3on& –  Rapid&induc3on&f&effec3ve&in&small&volumes& 9& & 3& 2/7/16& Proper3es&of&the&Ideal&Immobilizing&Agent& Easy)to)concentrate)and)potent)in)small)volumes) –  5&cc’s&=&average&prac3cal&volume& –  <2&cc’s&=&ideal& & Produces)no)side)effects) Controllable)dura.on)of)ac.on) –  User&can&reverse&effects& –  Reversal&Agents&or&Antagonists:&drugs&that&reverse&the& ac3on&of&other&drugs&by&compe3ng&with&immobilizing& drugs&at&the&site&of&ac3on&and&allow&control&over& immobiliza3on& 10& Proper3es&of&the&Ideal&Immobilizing&Agent& Produces)suitable)levels)of)seda.on)and)analgesia)) (calm)animal,)relieve)stress,)prevent)pain)percep.on)) –  Seda3ve:&drugs&that&suppress&the&Central&Nervous&System& (CNS)&and&dull&conscious&awareness;&s3mulus&received& but&brain&response&is&diminished&or&absent& –  Atarac3cs:&weak&seda3ves& –  Tranquilizers:&powerful&seda3ves&which&dull&awareness& and&produce&stupor& –  Analgesics:&drugs&which&alleviate&the&percep3on&of&pain& & 11& Proper3es&of&the&Ideal&Immobilizing&Agent& Produces)no)recycling)or) –  Recycling:&recurrence&of&immobilizing&drug&effects&ajer& the&animal&has&received&an&antagonist&and&given& appearance&of&complete&reversal;&common&with&narco3cs& Retains)potency)under)field)condi.ons) –  Use&coolers&to&protect&drug&potency&from&hot&and&cold& temps& Economical) Easy)regulatory)and)commercial)availability) Safe)for)operator)use) 12& 4& 2/7/16& Chemical&Immobiliza3on& The drugs: Controlled substances – Must be obtained from licensed veterinarian – DEA prescription Two Broad Categories – Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – too dangerous and banned – Central Nervous System Agents 13& Neuromuscular&Blocking&Agents& Immobilize&through&paralysis& Extremely&low&safety&margin& High&mortality&rates& Mortality&common&with&paralysis&of&respiratory& muscles& Banned&from&use&for&immobilizing&animals& 14& Central&Nervous&System&Drugs& Act&directly&on&brain/spinal&cord& – Alter&percep3on&of&environment& – Alleviate&fear&and&anxiety& – Depress&motor&ac3vity& Four&major&types& – Opioids& – Cyclohexamines&& – Tranquilizers&and&Seda3ves& – Inhalent&Anesthesia& 15& 5& 2/7/16& Opioids) ▯Morphine-like▯ = narcotic ! Highly potent ! Effective in small volumes ! Wide margin of safety ! Can be immediately reversed Cause loss of consciousness, alleviates perception of pain Careful! – minute doses are extremely toxic to humans ! Can be absorbed through mucous membrane 16& Opioids) Fentanyl and carfentanyl can be reversed by Naltrexone. Naltrexone is an opiod receptor antagonist. Naltrexone may be cleared from the body faster than fentanyl and carfentanyl – the animal may get secondarily anesthetized – keep an eye! 17& Opioids) Common&opioids&used&in&animal&immobiliza3on:& ! Carfentanil,&Etorphine,&Sufentanil,&Fentanyl,&Butorphanol& • Fentanyl&is&a&potent&narco3c&analgesic&with&a&rapid&onset&and&short& dura3on&of&ac3on.&Fentanyl&is&approximately&100&3mes&more&potent& than&morphine.&It&has&an50D &[dose&at&which&50%&of&those&exposed& die]&of&3.1&milligrams&per&kilogram&in&rats,&and&0.03&milligrams&per& kilogram&in&monkeys.)) • Carfentanil&or&carfentanyl&has&a&quan3ta3ve&potency&approximately& 10,000&3mes&that&of&morphine&and&100&3mes&that&of&Fentanyl.& 18& 6& 2/7/16& Cyclohexamines) Produce ▯altered consciousness▯ – Dissociate mental state from environmental stimulation – Retain many vital reflexes •  Cannot walk but can move tongue, blink, swallowing motion – Peripheral analgesia (lack of pain perception) •  Sufficient to suture skin wounds •  Insufficient for surgery 19& Cyclohexamines) Common Cyclohexamines (disassociatives): – Ketamine (▯Special K▯) – Tiletamine -> Telazol is a combination of equal parts by weight of tiletamine hydrochloride, an arylaminocycloalkanone tranquilizer anesthetic, and zolazepam hydrochloride, a minor – Phencyclidine (PCP) Cyclohexamines are dangerous when used alone and are NOT reversible – Must be used in conjunction with other drugs (tranquilizers and sedatives) 20& Tranquilizers)and)Seda.ves) Produce calmness and relaxation Does not cause loss of consciousness or alleviate pain perception •  Will cause death before they cause loss of consciousness Used in conjunction with other drugs (Cyclohexamines and Opioids) 21& 7& 2/7/16& Tranquilizers)and)Seda.ves) Commonly&used&tranquilizers&and&seda3ves:& – Diazapam&(Valium)& • Very&wide&margin&of&safety& • Calming&effect&and&muscle&relaxa3on& • Used&to&relieve&anxiety,&muscle&spasms,&and&seizures&and& to&control&agita3on& & – Xylazine&(Rompun,&Cervizine,&Anased)& • Fairly&wide&margin&of&safety& • Drug&of&choice&for&carnivores&and&ungulates& • Immediately,&completely&reversible&f>Tolazine)or& Naloxone&(15&mg&intravenously)& 22& ))) Inhalant)Anesthe.cs) Highly&vola3le&liquids&evaporate&and&absorbed&in&lungs& Produce&general&anesthesia&via&CNS&depression& Useful&for&smaller&mammals&and&surgical&procedures& Examples& –  Methoxyflurane&(Metofane)& –  Isoflurane)(Forane)& –  Former&popular&inhalant&& &&&&=&ether&(extremely&dangerous)& 23& U.S.&Regula3on&of&Immobilizing&Drugs& Because&immobilizing&drugs&are&potent&and&dangerous,& none&can&be&legally&purchased&or&used&without&a& prescrip3on&from&a&veterinarian& Some&drugs&must&be&registered&with&Drug&Enforcement& Administra3on&(DEA)& Controlled&Substance&Act&of&1970& –  Places&dangerous&drugs&into&categories&called&Schedules& –  Details&specifics&on&possession,&use,&and&dispensing& 24& 8& 2/7/16& U.S.&Regula3on&of&Immobilizing&Drugs& Schedule)I& Schedule)II& 1.  High&poten3al&for& 1.  High&poten3al&for& abuse& abuse& 2.  No&accepted&medicinal& 2.  Currently&accepted& use&in&the&U.S.& medical&use& 3.  Lack&of&accepted&safety& 3.  Severe&psychological&or& for&use& physical&dependence& –  Completely&outlawed& –  Stringent&ordering,& –  Heroin,&LSD,&Marijuana& security,&and&record& keeping&regula3ons& –  Carfentanil,&Fentanyl& 25& U.S.&Regula3on&of&Immobilizing&Drugs& Schedule)III& Schedule)IV) 1.  Moderate&poten3al&for& 1.  Low&poten3al&for&abuse& abuse& 2.  Current&accepted& 2.  Currently&accepted& medical&use& medical&use& 3.  May&lead&to&limited& 3.  Moderate&or&low& physical&dependence&or& physical&dependence&or& psychological& high&psychological& dependence& dependence&& –  Diazepam& –  Tiletamine/Zolazapam& (Telazol),&Ketamine& 26& U.S.&Regula3on&of&Immobilizing&Drugs& Schedule)V) 1.  Low&poten3al&for&abuse& 2.  Current&accepted&medical&use;&most&prescrip3on& medica3ons& 3.  May&lead&to&limited&physical&dependence&or&psychological& dependence& –  Obtained&only&on&the&order&of&a&licensed&physician&or& veterinarian& –  Not&under&DEA&control& –  Xylazine,&Yohimbine& 27& 9& 2/7/16& Drug delivery systems Darts Blow gun and jabpole 28& Using&a&Dart&Gun& 3&types&of&dart&guns:& –  Powder&charged& –  CO 2& –  Air& & Must&prac3ce&at&known& distances& –  Arcing&trajectory& –  Very&poor&ballis3cs& –  Weight&of&dart& • Drugs& • TransmiZer& 29& Stages&of&Anesthesia& Stage&1& –  Animal&is&disoriented& Stage&2& –  Animal&begins&to&lose& consciousness&and&voluntary& muscle&control& Stage&3& –  Plane&1:&loss&of& consciousness&with&pain& relief&and&muscle&relaxa3on& 30& 10& 2/7/16& Stages&of&Anesthesia& Stage&3&con3nued& – relief&2:&deeper&plan&of&pain& –  Plane&3:&depression&of& breathing&and&heart&rate& –  Plane&4:&Complete&loss&of& breathing&and&severe&cardiac& depression& Stage&4& –  Respiratory&and&cardiac& response& 31& Ajer&the&Shot& Approach&slowly,&quietly& – Animal&may&need&refdose&if&not&fully&anesthe3zed& & & Assess&depth&of&anesthesia& – Blink&reflex,&ear&reflex,&heart&and&respira3on&rate& & 32& Animal Safety/Welfare Handling captured animals – Keep STRESS to a minimum – Prep drugs away from animal – Fast efficient delivery of drug – Let the animal go down undisturbed but monitor 33& 11& 2/7/16& Animal&Safety/Welfare& Proper&posi3oning& –  Sternal&posi3on&for& ungulates& & Protect&eyes& –  Apply&lubricant& –  Blindfold& & 34& Animal Safety/Welfare Immobilized animal –  Check vital signs •  Breathing •  Capillary Refill Time (CRT) –  TEMPERATURE, TEMPERATURE, TEMPERATURE 35& Animal Safety/Welfare Problems – Hyperthermia – Temp. >~105°F – Increased heart and respiratory rate – Causes – Treatment •  Water •  Snow, Ice packs •  Alcohol 36& 12& 2/7/16& Animal Safety/Welfare •  Problems – Hypothermia – Temps <96°F – Slow response, shivering, ↓ heart rate – Causes – Treatment •  Dry animal •  Blanket, off ground •  Warm water bottles, heat packs 37& Animal Safety/ Welfare Capture Myopathy – Disease of muscle tissue – Documented in many species •  Ungulates very susceptible – Caused by intense stress and prolonged muscle exertion – Immediate clinical assessment is difficult, animal usually has delayed death 24hrs- 2 weeks post capture 38& Animal Safety/Welfare Capture Myopathy continued – Prevention •  Keep stress and chase time to a minimum •  Blindfold, keep noise down •  Restraint time to minimum •  Process quickly – Treatment •  IV or subcutaneous fluids 39& 13& 2/7/16& Animal Safety/Welfare Other – Lacerations, abrasions – Fractures – Bloating – Depressed respiratory •  Physical stimuli •  Dopram® – Seizures 40& Animal Safety/Welfare Release – Stay with animal monitor recovery – Keep recovering animal away from hazards During Process – Take detailed notes/ data – Take pictures 41& 14&


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