Chapter 2 of I/O Psychology
Chapter 2 of I/O Psychology PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lara on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lisa Penney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Research methods in HQ Psychology only way to be certain that something is serving its purpose is to conduct a research study 1 Each study starts with a research question to explain the purpose for the study 2 Conduct an experiment 3 Collect data and analyze using a statistical test 4 Develop a conclusion based off of the results Research questions Must be specific and address the concerns of the organization lO psychologists develop hypothesis of what they believe the results will be hypothesis and research study are critical Important research design concepts Variables Attribute of people or things that can vary Example abilities like intelligence can vary behavior job performance Each variable is represented in numbers Independent variables manipulated Dependent variables remain constant and are compared by the independent variables Research setting Two kinds Field setting where the whatever is of interest naturally occurs Example is observing employees in organizations Laboratory setting artificial environments in which whatever is of interest does not naturally happen there Generalizability results from a study can apply to others concern is applying what is discovered in lab and applying it to an organization not everything will be applicable to every other organization that is similar to the one being studied Control Researchers are able to get rid of factors that could result in an inaccurate outcome of the experiment This is possible by allowing what variables to be involved in the experiment Control group people who are going to be different from the group that is being examined Random assignment and random selection Random assignment assign people to an independent variable in a random way so anyone could have the opportunity of being assigned people can be made equivalent to each other on the variables not being studied Random selection assign people who will be studied on generalizability is more possible by choosing certain people as subjects Confounding Two or more variables are so involved with each other that a conclusion can not be made Example with commission sales jobs pay is based one job performance Pay and performance are confounded Research designs Basic structure of a scientific study Example creating an experiment with lots of procedures to follow due to the variables or a simple experiment of watching people Experiments One or more independent variables and one or more dependent variables Independent variable contains two or more interest points Such as length of daily work Dependent variable is measured but not changed by the researcher Such as frequency of absent days from work gt i true experiments involve a random assignment Quasiexperiment design one or more parts of a true experiment have been compromised bene t of experiments is to draw conclusions Survey designs A number of questions are used to study one or more variables that are of interest Crosssectional design all data was collected at the same time Longitudinal design data are collected at different times Example ask about an employee39s feelings at the beginning and after a year at the job gt common problems with surveys employees are not good with giving honest info and cross sectional kind of surveys make it dif cult to differentiate what variables were the cause for the result gt want large portion of people to survey so generalizability will be more applicable Observational design The employees are observed in their organizational settings with or without their knowledge Obtrusive methods employees are watched for a period of time during work Unobtrusive methods employees are aware of a researcher but not that they are being studied Qualitative methods variables are de ned by quantitative measurements and inferences are made about them case studies participant observations are examples of qualitative methods Measurement Categorical measurement the numerical value of the variables that are represented are in categories and the amount is of no importance Example if something is represents by the number 3 it does not mean that is actually less than 5 or great than 1 It is just representing a variable Continuous measurement numerical values that represent the variables are of importance gt higher numbers are better than lower numbers in representing the characteristic Individual differences Must be able to accurately measure these differences Psychological measurement Process of assigning s to characteristics of people re ect people in numbers Example age height personality how conscientiousness knowledge of 10 Talking about psychological characteristics Classical measurement theory tools to measure psychological Sample test item for conscientiousness I keep my belongings clean and neat Strongly agree Strongly disagree Sample test item for knowledge of 10 In the us Io research focuses mainly on job stress True False Each test item is a measure Every observation of a variable actual score can divide into two True scorehow conscientious error Conscientiousness Due to error must have multiple exams to reduce room for error Higher conscientiousness would be saying yes to sentences stating you are neat ReHabHHy Examine the reliability consistency should get results that correlate want at least 75 and up and validity in the test internal consistency how consistent are the items on a test in measuring the same thing Test retest consistency of measurement over time Interrater how well do 2 raters agree Does the person being tested on really being honest Example one employee rating their own job performance compared to what another employee39s perception of that same employee39s job performance Validity Content validity multiple ways to measure variable to ensure the whole variable is assessed Is the test representative of the domain of interest Example testing us only on items for ch 14 not ch 5 Test what they know only Construct validity give an accurate interpretation of what the scores mean Does the test actually the construct we say it does