Week 8 Notes - ES 101
Week 8 Notes - ES 101 ES 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ES 101 at University of Oregon taught by Fujiwara L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethnic Studies in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Constructing the Enemy, War Relocation & Enemy Combatants (Days 12 / 13) 11/16/15 & 11/18/15 - The Japanese Problem? - Growing Anti-Japanese Propaganda as war w/ Japan grows more inevitable - Earl Warren – Attorney General of CA & later Chief Justice of Supreme Court - Supporting idea of a possible insurrection - “that, with malice aforethought, Japanese Americans had ‘infiltrated themselves into every strategic spot in our coastal and alley counties’.“ - Munson Report - Curtis B. Munson commissioned by the FDR administration on an intelligence gathering investigation of Japanese Americans on West Coast - California, Oregon, & Washington - Findings & conclusion - “There is no Japanese ‘problem’ on the Coast. There will be no armed uprising of Japanese.” - Investigation in Hawaii - Found no problem but Japs = 1/3 of population & economy couldn’t withstand mass evacuation - Pearl Harbor – Yellow Peril - Bombing of PH caused organized, calculated multi-leveled campaign to remove Japanese from West Coast - Anti-Jap League & Native Sons / Daughters reemerged for exclusion movement as proponents of removal - Secretary of War Stimson “The racial characteristics are such that we cannot understand or trust even the citizen Japanese.” - Presidential Proclamation 2525 = immediate sweep & detention - Secretary of Navy – claiming espionage was present in Hawaii; ordered Roberts Commission Report - Media - On December 8, LA Times reported “California is a ‘danger zone’ and civilians needed to be alert for spies, saboteurs, and fifth colonists.” - Not one case of espionage during war - Media Empire – William Randolph Hearst - SF Chronicle - Warning Californians of spies & espionage - Jap tomato camps forming arrow to military sites Constructing the Enemy, War Relocation & Enemy Combatants (Days 12 / 13) 11/16/15 & 11/18/15 - How to profile the enemy - “How to Tell Japs from the Chinese” - enemy aliens - immediate round up of 2,000 suspected enemy aliens within first 4 days of PH bombing - Executive Order 9066 - Signed by FDR; Feb 19, 1942 - War Relocation Authority - Military Necessity - Nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans forcibly removed from their homes on West Coast - Established Exclusion Zones / Detention Orders - Gen. John L. Dewitt Military Commander of Western Defense Command - Gave over 100 military orders applying only to Japanese Americans - Japanese Internment Camps - “A Jap’s a Jap. It only makes no difference whether the Jap is a citizen or not” - “One drop of Japanese Ancestry” - 1/32 proof adopted children - Children in orphaneges Name State Opened Max. Pop Manzanar Californi March 1942 10,046 Tule Lake a May 1942 18,789 “ May 1942 Poston Arizona 17,814 Gila River “ July 1942 13,348 Granada / Colorad August 1942 7,318 Amache o “ Heart “ “ 10,767 Mountain “ Minidoka Idaho 9,397 Topaz Utah 8,130 Rohwer Arkansa September 8,475 s 1942 Jerome “ October 1942 8,497 - Redress & Reparations Constructing the Enemy, War Relocation & Enemy Combatants (Days 12 / 13) 11/16/15 & 11/18/15 - Mobilization by late 1970s led by Sansei & Nisei - 1980 President Jimmy Carter created the Commission on Wartime Relocation & internment of Civilians (CWRIC) - Concluded – Personal Justice denied incarceration of Japanese Americans =not justified - Rather, report determined decision to incarcerate was based on “race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership” - Recommended formal apology & $20,000 for each surviving internee - Important Legal Cases - Korematsu v. US - Minoru Yasui v. Oregon - 1988, President Raegan signed Civil Liberties Act based upon findings - 1989, President Bush signed appropriations Bill - 1990, survivors began to receive their letters & money - Parallels: Japanese Internment / War on Terror Executive Order USA Patriot Act 9066 War Relocation Terrorist Task Force Authority “Enemy Alien” “Enemy Combatant” Internment Indefinite Detention denial of civil & human rights validated through constructions of fear & suspicion Military necessity National Security - “Pearl Harbor” – “Twin Towers” “9066 – USA Patriot Act” - racialized construction of enemy - popular – national solidarity vs. human / civil rights - role of legislation & enforcement - enemy combatant / racial hatred / drastic increase in Anti- Muslim, Anti-arab hate crimes - special registration, mass arrests, custody, incarceration, deportations, & torture - Post 9/11 - Saito: Looking at “War on Terror” through lens of Japanese internment Constructing the Enemy, War Relocation & Enemy Combatants (Days 12 / 13) 11/16/15 & 11/18/15 - Loss of habeas corpus – detainees can seek relief from unlawful detainment - Criminalizing Pre-Crime – or suspicion of potential crime - USA Patriot Act 10/26/01 - Empowers Attorney General to certify immigrant risk groups as suspected terrorists - Citizens & non-citizens (“enemy combatants”) - Mandatory detention of enemy combatants - Racialization of the Muslim Terrorist - Criminals – Enemy Combatants - Racial Profiling: “race or ethnic appearance as a broad predictor of who is involved in a crime of terrorism” - Probable cause - National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS) - Targeting groups w/ nothing to do w/ 9/11 - Citizenship - Privilege - Non-citizens – vulnerable to changing policies & social conditions - Fragile – fragile for whom? - Race & citizenship hold a precarious relationship. - What role does citizenship play in immigration policies / anti-terrorism policies & policies around crime? - How does citizenship play out in the larger idea of borderlands?
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