New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BY 124 Ch. 29

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Josh Ousley

BY 124 Ch. 29 BY 311

Josh Ousley

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Molecular Genetics
Class Notes
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore..."
Catalina Veum

Popular in Molecular Genetics

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josh Ousley on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BY 311 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr.Bej in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Molecular Genetics in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.


Reviews for BY 124 Ch. 29

Star Star Star Star Star

What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...

-Catalina Veum


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/06/15
Ch. 29 Random fact: fungus is hard to treat because it is a eukaryotic disease. Review on plants Eukaryotic cells and all multicellular. Energy from photosynthesis from sun. photoautotrophs.  The main pigment is chlorophyll A. Cell wall is made out of cellulose. They also have  mitochondria and vacuoles. Plasma desmota—cytoplasm continuum.  Plants are closely related to Algae. Plants appeared approx.. 500 million years ago. Charrphyceans—green algae. Embrophytes—land plants. Similarities between plants and algae: Rose shaped complexes where cellulose is made Peroxisome enzymes—important in minimizing loss of organic products during photorespiration. Flagellated sperm Formation of phragmoplast. More things that support the Algae­ plant theory. Algae live in water near banks Sporopollenin keeps embryos from drying out. So when a pond dries out this keeps the embryos  alive. Adaptive radiation—plants evolved really fast. How are plants different? Plants grow from top Ex. Carving on trees.  Apical meristems in roots too. None in algae. Alternation of generation meiosis is ½ its chromosomes. Haploid cells can go though mitosis to  make haploids. Plants alternate between two forms: Gametophyte and sporophyte Gametophyte—multicellular haploid  Sporophyte multicellular diploid  What is dominate? It differs. Moss is haploid Fern is diploid Spores are reproductive cells that develop into an organism without fusing to another cell. Sporophyte is going to do meiosis to get spore. Mitosis occurs and you get a gametophyte. Sporopollenis does not allow spores to dry out. Eggs are produced in archegonia Sperm is produced in antheridia Algae are different. Fertilization takes place in mom. Algae does not. Placental transfer—maternal tissue that feeds the embryo. Fossilized spores— Cudical does not allow water to leave and stomata lets CO2 enter. Support in trunk of tree is dead cells. Things plants had to over come: Gravity Lack of water Preditors and wind Fig 29.7 1. Origin of land plants 2. Origin of vascular plants 3. Origin of seed plants. The first group of plants that made seed was the gymnosperms 4. Origin of angiosperms ** remember 29.7 Nonvascular plants do not have vascular systems Bryophytes—all of the non­vascular plants. Phylum Bryophyta Gametophyte—haploid. Non vascular plants are gametophyte dominate. Vascular plants—tracheophytes. Sporophyte dominate. Xylem—carries water. Phloem carries sugars. Nonvascular plants (bryophytes) Phylum Heptaphyta—liver worts>> herb. Liver worts can reproduce asexually. Gemmae***? Rhiziod—a cell that can soak up water and then water moves through cells via osmosis. Mosses are closely related to vascular plants. Mosses have flagellated sperm and they have to be in moist environments so the sperm can  travel to egg. MAJOR TREND IN EVOLUTION: in plant evolution the major trend is reduction of the haploid and dominance of the diploid. Life cycle of a moss Starts with male and female. Sperm goes inside archegonia and the zygote grows there. The  mature sporophyte grows spores and the peristome releases.  Peat lands—the accumulation of this inhibits O2 and does not allow bacteria to decompose. Seedless Vascular plants These plants are going to be bigger. Young xylem vs old one. Tracheophyes—a type of cell in xylem called trachoids. Sporophyles—modified leaves that are going to bear sporangia. **sori and strobili Branching Fig 29.UNO4 Homosporous spore production vs. heterospore production Seedless nonvascular plants used to be the most dominate plant on land. Fig. 29.15 Phylum Lycophyta Spike moss—not moss!! Quillwort Clubmoss—not moss!! Strobili Seedless nonvascular appeared during adminophium and carboniferous periods. Rhizome—horizontal stem. Never see the gametophyte because it lives under ground. Depends on a symbiotic fungus to  feed it. Most are homosprous.  Phylum Pterophyta The more common vascular plant Horsetails use to grow as tall as trees Genus Equisetum which means horse. Ferns—still around. Life cycle of a fern. Spores are made by meisosis they fall down and it grows by mitosis into the  gametophye, prothallus, on the heart shaped thing there are antheritium and archegonia  A sperm and egg does not fertilize on the same gametophyte. They mature at different times. During the carboniferous period it got dry and the seedless plants died off and seed plants  dominated. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.