Week 13: WWI
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
20th century Optimism seems like progress is going to continue 0 Difference in how people were living prior to that Continuation at the enlightened way of looking at things 0 Apply reason and science to technology we can make governments education business religion etc better 0 Leisure time doing activities for funspending money on things that are not needed Impact on the arts Monet Artists create different styles 0 Impressionism 0 Move away fr er ect depiction of scene of person direct copy now available with photography Impressionist paintings move away from the perfect lines and form 0 Conveys an atmosphere emotion an impression New style pointillism just dots New style cubism take elements seemingly disconnected and put them together 0 New style completely abstract Modernism encompasses the many new styles arising at this time 0 Can mean art from that is free form not bound by traditional convention or style 0 Now a wider audience for artists to entertain Philosophy the not so optimistic view Friedrich Nietzsche German philosopher 0 quotGod is deadquot statement God as a construct of Christian morality is phony 0 He was disagreeing with the premise that things were becoming more rational and overall disagreed that human society was improving 0 Life is not rational life is absurd and random and cruel There is no real standard of good and evil life is just a struggle to compete and survive 0 People need to live by their own standards and rise about living by their individual standards superman relevancy o Nazis take his idea and twist it use it to say Arian race is above all others NOT what Nietzsche was saying at all 0 Sigmund Freud 0 19th and early 20th century 0 Not completely optimistic about human society 0 Says people are not basically rational by nature driven at their core by inner forces though society doesn39t let you act on those So people have to suppress these urges Desire to succeed passion sexual desires etc o This suppression of desire causes all sorts of problems 0 He proposes various stages of life ex Stages children go through 0 Study of the unconscious mind and psychosis 0 He is criticized for his small sample size WWI Underlying Causes of WWI Nationalism 0 Growing spirit of nationalism through the 19th century H 0 Show up the other guys mentality 0 People living in multinational empire Want their own country Ex Russians conquered many people those people desire their independence Militarism o Partly in the sense of an arms race 0 Germans French and British building up their armies 0 War is overall fun exciting invigorating no one at this time remembers major war there have been minor wars but not masses of armies laying waste to elds and cities There have been wars in foreign places against people far less developed Impression of war is that it is relatively short and glorious o No one really has an idea of what modern industrial war was going to look like Imperialism o Industrialized powers hitting heads a level of competition amongst them 0 Complex alliances o IMAGE 0 Axis powers Germany Italy Japan Hungary Romania Bulgaria 0 Allied powers US Britain France SSR Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Denmark Greece Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland South Africa Yugoslavia Poor European leadership 0 The leaders in many of the countries once the crisis starts seem to kind of welcome war they don39t try to stop the con ict Immediate cause of WWI Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand end ofJune 1914 a month later WWI breaks out o Franz Ferdinand O O O O 0 An archduke of Austria Heir presumptive to the AustroHungarian throne Serbians want to unite to join with more Serbians Franz is within his own empire getting ready for a parade to try to gain nationalism He and his wife were both killed by an assassin Serbian assassinsterrorists scattered often in the wrong place some tried to set a bomb accidently blew themselves up Meanwhile the driver took a wrong turn and that got them to run into the assassin The Austrians see this as a chance to crush the little nation of Serbia BUT Serbia has a friend Russia So Austrians go to Germany gain them as an ally Austrians move troops towards Serbia Russia begins moving troops toward Austrian border and along the German front Russia hoped a common enemy will bring their people together Then French and British get involved 0 British do attempt to calm things down those attempts are ignored Germans invade France and sweep through neutral Belgium Events of WWI Germans invade France 0 When news of the war spread through Europe people were excited 0 Not cheering for 4 years of slaughter and bloodshed 0 They expect a short war and great victory everyone different plans but 0 Part way through the war the allies get Italy to join them 0 The Germans mount a major offensive into France following the Schlieffen plan 0 Essence is should there be a land 0 German troops invade France and succeed across a wide front push French to the outskirts of Paris 0 French nally push Germans back in early each expect defeat of enemy in a short time The rima of the Agata Who Did it war in Europe there are enemies on both sides Plan calls for mass army on the West to capture France then later go after Russia E illff Jith39l L lZ Elli l l TITI Ci39k i l ilj H H jigu39ll l iia Eifffi l39r ll quotiquotIE l qtm i September 0 As they start attacking each other they see its dif cult for an offensive attack to succeed 0 Battle lines stall largely unchanged for the rest of the war 0 Germany now has to ght a 2 front war Schlieffen plan FAILED Weapons and Warfare 0 Machine gun 0 End of the cavalry More powerful artillery Barbed wire 0 Trench warfare o Trenches zigzag if you had a straight J trench and an enem ca tured on Fm 7 WWW y p H M3575 mg Pm venth Parades fur section then there39s direct re to take down the whole trench a weakness zigzag avoids Gases 0 Extremely dif cult for an offensive attack to succeed with all the defense improvements protection from explosions from 39 I v 39 jiiltnad the trench trench 39 C r 391 if 7 v i 39 v I wrench BOTH sides start pouring more and more troops into the battle mm V trench WWl really shakes Western civilization not enlightenment or progress it39s using machines for a Comp n fl li dugout slaughter wartime After a couple years now nations feel they need to win and cannot just give up after investing so much War of Attrition war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel Both sides have to pour in troops foods clothes etc and whoever runs out rst loses Both sides had airplanes no advantage there Submarine Warfare 0 GOAL choke off the enemies supplies 0 Germany really only has 2 roots to the outside world British vessels block those areas and make it very hard for Germany to get supplies British succeed in choking that off 0 Submarines Germans used U boats to slip under the British blockade to get out in the Atlantic Once in the Atlantic they would surface and re at merchant vessels British start escorting merchant ships so now when submarines they get shot at So Germans start unrestricted submarine warfare 0 Used torpedoes sneak up on ships MUCH higher loss of life Germans were sinking passenger ships 0 The British blockade really hurts Germany39s economy Germans start back up realizing they will probably get America involved Germans take gamble that Americans won t join until Germans have succeeded essentially thought America would be too late for it to matter America Joins the War 0 America had 75000 men in their army no tanks 9 hours of artillery etc 0 Didn39t seem like a military power 0 America did have the industrial revolution 0 Supplied troops clothes weaponry etc Women work in factories on the farms to carry out tasks 0 Now it is a matter of time Allies now have tons of supplies Propaganda uttejuh Il fi39 0 Economy nearly collapse Spontaneous uprising of the population in march of 1917 where throughout the Czars government 0 Set up multiple parties 0 Got rid of death penalty and prison camps o Allowed freedom of press 0 War still going on free government all of a sudden with a collapse economy and clear war 0 There will be a different revolution 0 Armed group a Marxist party takes over the Bolsheviks Get rid of freedom of speech and press Again back to secret police Death penalty back End of WWI Sign a cease re to end the war Known as quotThe Great Warquot In America known as the war to end all wars 10 million dead 21 million wounded Add to that the 20 million dead worldwide from the in uenza epidemic that strikes at the end of the war common for wartime to see more deaths from diseases 0 Civilians and soldiers dying of the Spanish ln ueza
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