Biology: March 28- April 1
Biology: March 28- April 1 Biology 1120-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Biology: March 28- April 1 Circulatory Systems • Systemic circulation- take oxygenated blood from lungs to throughout body • Pulmonary circulation- returns deoxygenated blood to lungs • Renal artery- sends blood to kidneys for filtration • Transportation- respiratory, nutrition, excretory, hormones • Protection- blood clotting, immune defense • Regulation- hormone transport, temperature regulation • Open vs. closed circulatory system o open: hemolymph leaves vessels and comes into direct contact with tissues o closed: blood never leaves vessels • Arties- carry blood from heart (larger muscles and smaller space- high blood pressure) • Veins- carry blood to heart (smaller muscles and larger space- lower blood pressure) • Capillaries- carry blood from the arterial to venous system • Systolic phase- contraction • Diastolic phase- relaxation • Lymphatic System- collects interstitial fluid and returns in to the blood; plays a large role in immune responses • Amphibian, fish, and mammals/birds/crocodiles have various circulatory systems Nervous System • Central nervous system: brain, spiral cord • Peripheral nervous system: nerves- sensory pathways; motor pathways: somatic and automatic: sympathetic and parasympathetic) • Signals are sent to effector cells from the brain • When reflexes occur, sensory information bypasses the brain • Neuron: signals travel through electrical signals by action potentials o between synapses (intercellular junctions), chemicals signal neurotransmitters o sodium potassium pump pushes out 3 positive sodium ions and brings in 2 potassium ions (reduces net charge by 1+) o resting potential (inside of cell is more negative) and action potential (once a specific level of depolarization is reached) o membrane potential results in activation of gated ion channels o Somatic motor neurons- stimulate skeletal muscle contractions o Autonomic motor neurons- regulate activity of muscles and glands o Glutamine- main excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS o Glycine and GABA are inhibitory neurotransmitters Evolution of Nervous System • Developed independently within various phyla • Brain o Hindbrain was the principle component in early vertebrates o Forebrain contains thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum o Cerebral cortex controls much of the neural activity o Left hemisphere dominant for language o Right hemisphere is dominant in spatial reasoning o Memory is within multiple parts of the brain; includes short (electrical impulses) and long-term (structural changes in connections) § Alzheimer’s disease- loss of memories and eventually higher brain functions • Spinal cord o Relays messages and functions in reflexes • Somatic neurons- stimulate skeletal muscles to contract to conscious commands • Autonomic nervous system o Sympathetic- ‘fight or flight’ § Epinephrine is produced in adrenal gland then norepinephrine is produced as well o Parasympathetic- ‘rest and digest’ Sensory Systems 1. Stimulus 2. Transduction to electrical charge 3. Transmission to action potential 4. Interpretation of stimulus • Environmental Stimuli o Mechanical forces (ex. pressure and sound) § Detecting temperature and pressure: cutaneous receptors; thermoreceptors (naked dendrite sensitive to temp. changes); sensors in hypothalamus to maintain internal body temperature; nociceptors transmit impulses perceived as pain § Sensing movement and vibration: hair cells sense movement; within a lateral line system, cupula move with vibrations which bend cilia and stimulates neurons § Gravity and angles sensed by vestibular apparatus in mammalian inner ear; cupula- through ear canal and ear drum • Cochlea is the inner part of the ear- detects specific frequencies and sounds o Elephants can produce infrasound o Bats can produce ultrasound for echolocation o Chemical stimuli (ex. taste and smell) § Chemoreceptors contain membrane proteins that can bind to particular chemicals § Taste buds mediate taste in vertebrates, ex. bitter and sweet § Other organs may be used such as hairs or tongues o Electromagnetic and thermal stimuli (ex. heat and magnetism) § Eyes start simple, ex. flatworms can detect light and no image § Binocular vision- ability to have 3D images and have depth perception § Vertebrates and cephalopods have ‘camera eyes’- light enters and is focused • Rods cells- black and white vision • Cone cells- sharpness and color vision § Images are processed though the brain Skeletal System • Hydrostatic skeletons- fluid-filled cavity with muscles surrounding; muscles contact, moving cavity shape • Exoskeletons- limit body size; must shed skeleton • Endoskeleton- rigid skeletons with muscles attached o Axial skeleton- axis of body and support o Appendicular skeleton- limbs on body • Joints: movable, slightly moveable, immovable • Muscles- antagonistic; attach to bone by tendons o Skeletal- Type I: slow twitch fibers (more capillaries and mitochondria); Type II: fast twitch fibers o Cardiac o Smooth o Synergists- muscles that cause action at joint o Antagonists- muscles that produce opposite actions o Muscles are made of muscle fibers, which are made of myofilaments: § Thick, dark A bands § Thin, light I bands § Sarcomere: sections chunked ‘vertically’ from Z line to Z line § Purple actin filaments (thinner) surround and slide towards middle of red myosin filaments (thicker) § ATP is essential for this process o Muscles may produce lactic acid if they are strained for oxygen and switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration
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