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3/29 and 3/31 notes CDAE 002

by: HD

3/29 and 3/31 notes CDAE 002 CDAE 002

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Notes from this week
World Food, Population and Development
Dr. Shoshanah Inwood
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by HD on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
3/29/16 Radical Political Economy (70’s and 80’s)  Change in society can transform society to be more socially responsible  Power = inherent conflict with the rich and poor o challenge those in charge  Good society o Consumer sovereignty (equal access to material benefits) o Access to meaningful work o Citizen sovereignty (people determine the type of community they live in) o Ensure equality and equity  Dependency Theory o Structural disadvantages of periphery vs. capitalist core o Means of production and economic sector are most important in any society o *video* World Systems Theory  Core, Periphery and Semi Periphery countries emphasize global inequality o Terms of trade vs. Capital Entrepreneurial skills  Debt Crisis o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize o Loans are adjustable o Borrowers pay more than they receive o Reschedule debt payment—government alters policies through forced change for countries  Impact on individuals and environment  Debt o Most debt newly created (80% since 1990) o Emerging economies grow fast o Wealthy economies struggle to grow o Greece  Structural adjustment policies due to debt  *video* Crisis in Greece  They feel like “economic hamsters”  Strikes of all kinds by people from all walks of life and professions  7-year-old with asthma that can’t afford to go to the doctor  no money for it  Jamaica o *video* Life and Debt continued…  Free trade zones  Delayed payment to workers  They say that Free Trade Zones are for the poor, but that’s not seen  Agriculture  Bananas  They export to the UK  Latin America grows a lot of bananas  Costs more in Jamaica to grow same bananas grown in Latin America  Chickens  Poultry o Which theories of development do you see in the film?  Dependency Theory  US deporting chicken for a lot less than it takes Jamaicans to do that same  Neoliberalism  Privatization of government  None left for health, education, roads, worker rights, sewage o How does the mission of the IMF, WB and WTO relate to the film?  Governing instituitons setting the terms of trade  Chiquita, Dole, Tommy Hilfiger, Hanes  WTO  Rule on Lome  Gives Caribbean access to European countries  They sided/ruled with Dole and Chiquita o Who is affected by IMF’s loans to Jamaica?  Workers  Children  Families  Structural Adjustment Policies o Government focused on free trade  Vermont farmers and temporary farm workers o 2,500 workers documented o Majority from Jamaica  Banana Republics o Places that have one primary export crop o 5 international companies account for ¾ of the world banana trade o Bananas are the biggest profit making item in UK supermarkets o Cost of production is cheap—but what about externalities? o Grown in tropical countries o Overuse of pesticides o *video* Fair Trade Bananas clip  Special needs education  The hope for free trade continues 3/31/16  Babies in the River Example o Babies floating down the river, what do you do?  iclicker question: Famine is caused by o The inability to buy or grow food Malthusian  Paradigm of Development  Overshoot and Collapse o Carrying capacity  Maximum population of a particular speciies that a given habitat can support over time o Overshoot  Condition in which population size of a species temporarily exceeds carrying capacity of environment  Leads to sharp reduction in its population o Example: St. Matthew Island—Bering Sea  1944  US Coast Guard introduces 29 reindeer  Lichens are extensive and there are no predators  Over the years the lichens disappear and most of the deer died  Malthusian o Carrying capacity o Humans will not be able to offset their consumption of resources o Good life unattainable o “Lifeboat” strategies and policies  rationing  immigration  population o The Malthusian Catastrophe Famine, Hunger and Food Access  Consequences of poor nutrition o 842 million people in the world don’t have enough to eat o 827 million live in developing countries o 1 out of 6 children is underweight o 1 in 4 is stunted o 80% of stunted kids live in just 20 countries  Why the focus on stunted children? o Stunting  Below median height for age of reference population  Results from nutritional deficiency during child’s first 1,000 days o Consequences  Impaired cognitive development  Bodies shut down  Susceptible to disease  Apathetic  Do poorly in school  Earn less when they become adults  Example: brain scan of 3-year-olds normal and malnourished o International Response  Stunting typically becomes permanent  Improvement after age 2 can restore a child’s health to near normal  Children grow up to be adults and it effects the country’s society, economy and development  Vicious cycle  Causes of Famine and Hunger o Biological o Crop failure o Social, Political, Economic o Misconceptions about world hunger  World hunger is not due to insufficient food production  Famine is the most common reasons for hunger and it’s rarely caused by food insufficiency  Hunger is not caused by overpopulation o 2013 crop yields set records  1840’s Irish Potato Famine o Potato monoculture o Lump potatoes o Fungus in the potatoes from Mexico o Cloned potatoes have no diversity so when the blight hit, all potatoes were affected o “Famine fever”  Cholera  Dysentery  Scurvy  Typhus  Starvation  Death o Ireland was still exporting food to England  Wheat  Oats  Barley  Onions  Peas  Beans  Lamb  Rabbit  Etc. o British rule  Irish Catholics prohibited from purchasing land  Had to rent plots and pay a landlord  Farmers can’t pay rent so they are jailed or evicted  500,000 tenant farmers evicted off land and relocated to poor houses  Died of starvation and disease  Can’t purchase food or grow food because they don’t have enough money o Migration from Ireland  Over 10 years, 2 million left for Great Britain, Canada and US  Irish population reduced by a quarter in 5 years o Legacy  Memorials  Animosity toward British  British eventually help  bring in cheaper grain  Start soup kitchens  Emergency work relief  Too little too late  Long lasting effects  Bengal Famine 1943 “Man Made Holocaust” o AKA Churchill’s Secret War o 3 million died from starvation and malnutrition o Burma taken by Japanese in 1942 o Cyclone hit in the same year o Panic among administrators that Japanese would take over the bay  They destroyed food stocks in case they take over o Prices increased 4-fold between March and October 1943  Example: Davis Center food going from $7 to $28 o Rice is available but it’s being exported to British troops in Mediterranean o War time inflation o Increase demand for food o Price increase for rice  Farmers hoard rice  Rational reaction to get higher prices due to demand o Wages don’t follow the price trend  Migration to cities  30% of the laborer class dies o Government mismanagement  Preventing trade between states  Calcutta must have food o Famine ends  Bengal imports again o Churchill  “The Indian people brought this upon themselves by breeding like rabbits”  Malthusian idea  War and Hunger in 2016 o Using food and starvation as a weapon is a war crime o Madaya, Syria  *video* o Yemen conflict  Saudi Arabia airstrikes to curb the rebels  1.5 million people displaced  Trouble accessing food, water, fuel  14 million food insecure  7 million severely food insecure  1 in 2 children under 5 are stunted due to hunger  *video* Children with life threatening malnutrition in Yemen o One of the keys in distribution of food and resources o What does hunger look like? o Food riots in Mozambique  Hunger and Famine review o Hunger isn’t caused by lack of food but by people’s lack of ability to purchase food o Famine is a reflection of  Supply and demand  Commodity price speculation  Hoarding o Hunger and famine is a consequence of:  Political unrest  Bad government  Disruption due to war o Global economic forces bring about poverty  Low wages  Debt of periphery  The Working Poor and Hungry o Wal-mart  Not paid enough  Low wage protests o Happening in our own country not just globally th  IPCC 5 Assessment of Climate Change o Climate change to lead to dramatic drops in wheat and maize o Climate change is projected to create more negative than positive aspects for agriculture o Climate change connected to rising food prices o California drought o Food abundance and food waste Demography: Population Growth, Migration and Urbanization  World Population growth o *video* National Geographic video—7 billion  We don’t need space, we need balance o Population policy  Strategy for achieving a particular pattern or population change o Direct population policy  Aimed specifically at demographic behavior  Increase # of kids o Tax credit o Social services  Limit # of kids  Free contraceptives  Legalize abortion  Sterilization  Improve quality of healthcare and education o Indirect population policy  Influence population change but may not be designed too  Trade Agreements o NAFTA  Climate change  Conflict/war o Demography  Study of populations  What happens over a person’s lifetime  Population  Balancing equation  Birth rate  # of births per 1,000 women of population each year  Different in each country  Liberia = 38/1,000 in the population  US = 14/1,000 in the population  Fertility rate  # of live births per 1,000 women of child bearing age in given year  Total fertility rate  *on the slide*  Fertility rates vary  Worldwide fertility rates declining but the population isn’t  *continued on the slide*


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