Week 14 Lecture/Readings Notes (Philosophy 341)
Week 14 Lecture/Readings Notes (Philosophy 341) Philosophy 341
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah James on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 341 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dan Hausman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Moral Issues in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Week 14 Readin s Comparison US to Canada Longer life expectancy less infant mortality Everyone is fully insured without copayments or user fees 0 Not socialized medicine public coverage for private delivery US citizens less likely to have regular medical doctor and twice as likely to forgo needed medicines Wait times roughly 50 longer in Canada vary hugely place to place Medical professionals paid much more in US Drugs 40 cheaper 20 vs 40 don t fill prescriptions because of cost Technology more in US but used more extensively in Canada Malpractice litigation payouts higher in Canada but lawsuits less common Wilkinson and Marmot Social Determinants of Health The Social Gradient 0 Life expectancy is shorter and diseases are more common further down the social ladder of each society I People lower run at least twice the risk of serious illness and premature death 0 These differences have both material and psychosocial causes I Stressful economic and social circumstances cause physiological wear and tear on their health 0 Life contains a serious of critical transitions childhood primary to secondary educations leaving work and starting a family etc I Each of these changes affect health by pushing a person down a more or less advantaged path 0 Good health involves reducing levels of educational failure reducing unemploymentinsecurity and improving housing standards Stress O Stressful circumstances are damaging to health and may lead to premature death 0 Stress problems are more common in lower income brackets 0 Stress stimulates hormones and other responses which affect the cardiovascular and the immune systems 0 Policy should reduce major causes of chronic stress should support young families encourage community activity reduce financial insecurity etc Early Life 0 The impact of early life and education lasts a lifetime 0 Slow growth and lack of emotional support raise the lifetime risk of poor physical health and reduce cognitive and emotional functioning in adulthood 0 Poor circumstances in pregnancy leads to less than optimal fetal development causing health risks 0 Risks should be reduced through improved preventative health care and improvements in education Social Exclusion 0 By causing hardship and resentment discrimination affects health 0 Social exclusion results from poverty racism discrimination unemployment etc I Prevent people from participating in education services citizenship activities etc 0 To reduce the effects of exclusion all citizens should be guaranteed minimum income there should be intervention to reduce poverty legislation should prevent discrimination etc Unemployment 0 Job security increases wellbeing unemployment causes more illness and premature death I Job anxiety increases effects on mental health stress depression etc 0 Policies should prevent unemploymentjob insecurity reduce the hardship of the unemployed and restore people to secure jobs Social Support 0 Friendship and good social relations improve health dramatically I Give people the emotional and practical resources they need 0 Belonging to a social network makes people feel cared for loved and valued 0 Social cohesion the quality of social relationships and the existence of trust and respect in communities or in a wider society helps protect people s health 0 Policies should reduce social and economic inequalities as well as social exclusion more social cohesion better standards of health I They should also improve the social environment in schools work community etc Addiction 0 Use of substances is in uenced by wider social setting 0 Use of alcohol drugs tobacco etc allow a release from reality but they intensify the factors that made the person turn to substance in the first place 0 Policies should regulate availability through policies and licensing and should inform people of their harmful effects 0 Global market forces control the food supply so healthy food is a political issue 0 Access to gold affordable food makes a big difference in people s health 0 Poor people tend to have cheaper processed food as a source of nutrients people on low incomes are least able to eat well 0 Policies should provide healthy affordable food for all Deaton What does empirical evidence tell us about the injustice of health inequalities The birth of the gradient 0 Some people assume that the gradient showing that life expectancy and health increase with wealth has always been present but data shows this to be false used to not make a difference I This changed because innovations to better health were expensive and thus only the wealthy could use them 0 This fact shows us that wealth and power themselves are useless against mortality without the tools attained with them I This wealth difference isn t the only factor that impacts health but it is an important one Men and women 0 Men die more often than women high mortality rate but women get sick more often than men higher morbidity rate Children race and health care 0 Children have worse health outcomes when their parents have less income or less education similar at childbirth get worse with age I These are examples of unjust inequalities that should be fixed 0 Racial inequalities is the second example of injustice I Minorities have lower life expectancy more chronic diseases etc I It is thought that the stress of living daily in a racist society causes these poor health outcomes 0 It is also possible that minorities receive worse health care because the hospitals and clinics that serve them are lower quality I Minorities are also more likely to live near environmental hazards toxins pollutants etc often to live in cheaper housing areas Socioeconomic status education income and health 0 There is a consistent link between civil service rank measured by income and a wide range of health outcomes I Thus high ranks promote health and low ranks endanger it 0 To correct injustices policies should focus on early childhood health nutritiondisease prevention and trying to moderate the effects or parental deprivation on child outcomes lower incomeeducation parents generate kids with more health risks Unhealthy behavior by the poor 0 Poor people are more likely to smoke or be obese than rich people I They are also less likely to exercise regularly more likely to live in polluted areas or drink alcohol etc 0 The adverse circumstances of poor people lead to these decisions and thus these choices are often hard to avoid for poor people International health inequalities 0 Differences in life expectancy between countries are much larger than differences in life expectancy within countries I Infant mortality rates are the main drivers in these differences 0 People in impoverished countries are dying of things that are easily treated prevented or cured polio malnutrition diarrhea etc I That s why these differences are perhaps the most unjust differences involving health 0 Differences in income are also much larger between countries 0 There is debate over Whether the inequalities between countries are either just or unjust is justice a matter of people Within a country through their social contract I But there is a consensus that countries should have at least minimally decent health for everyone 0 But the contributions to poor countries by rich ones can undermine the creation of a society that can allow these changes longterm so fixing these inequalities is difficult 0 Income inequality as a risk factor for health 0 Inequality and its effect on health is profound especially through politics I Political inequality leads to health inequality 0 The rich have no need for disability national health care etc and thus do not want to pay taxes to support them They have huge political in uence to prevent the creation of such plans
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