HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) March 28 - April 1, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) March 28 - April 1, 2016 HIST 1020
Popular in World History II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) March 28 - April 1, 2016
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 04/01/16
March 28April 1, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan CHINESE NATIONALISM China didn’t experience the kind of colonization that India did, but it did experience Western imperialism. In China, Western powers exerted less formal forms of control. o Opium War – (18391842) conflict between the British and China, the British were growing opium and selling it to China, China tried to resist the British opium trade and when they did the British attacked, the British sent in ships and ended up winning o Extraterritoriality – there were places in China that were important to the British and other Europeans for business purposes, they were designated as “free ports,” people followed rules of their own countries not China’s Manchu Dynasty – the last ruling dynasty in Chinese history, they were essentially powerless with the Westerners coming in o Taiping Rebellion – (18501864) it is an expression of Chinese dissatisfaction with its government, it was a phenomenon, it was a rebellion in which 13 million people died Hong Xiuquan – was an individual who sat multiple times for the Chinese Civil Service exam and did not pass, he is totally alienated from the government, he embraces Christianity (part of the outsiders in China were Christian missionaries), he did put his own spin on Christianity though: he believed he was the brother of Jesus Christ, he had hostility towards other Chinese religions (says they are worshiping demons), and around this man a move came about: the AntiManchuMovement (this becomes the basis for the Taiping Rebellion), the Taipings are trying to “save” China from the government o Boxer Rebellion – (1900) was totally antiwestern antiforeigners, the Boxers began in various cities and attacked foreigners, it is another major expression of Chinese nationalism The Chinese Nationalism Movement went through various phases: o Overthrow Manchu Dynasty o Deal with internal civil war for ages o Struggle to establish a Republic in China o Struggle against Communism in China o Struggle against the Japanese who later invade China o Carry out a Communist Revolution in China March 28April 1, 2016 Dr. Sun YatSen – he was a physician, western educated, he is in favor of a democracy in China, he wants to see land reform, he believes that the Chinese peasant will be the backbone of the Chinese democracy and economy o 1911 – the last emperor was overthrown (end of Manchu/Qing Dynasty) o Yuan ShiKai – becomes the first president of China, there is a parliament to go along with it, he turns out to be a dictator, antidemocratic, authoritarian, he was the opposite of what Sun YatSen wanted him to be o Kuomintang (KMT) – was a Chinese political party led by Sun YatSen that tried to overthrow Yuan ShiKai, it fails so Sun YatSen and others must flee China for awhile, but Yuan ShiKai died earlier than they thought, this left the KMT in charge (19161926) – There is a major civil war in China between the KMT and the warlords. The KMT tries to fight this on their own, but they really need help and ended up turning to the West. The West refuses to help, so they turn to Russia. Russia sends a ton of help. By 1923, there is a lot of Soviet help in China. o Chiang KaiShek – antiCommunist, was under Sun YatSen originally but took over the effort and the KMT when Sun YatSen died, he killed anyone who was or was suspected of being Communist in the KMT o MaoZedong – fell under the influence of Li Dazhao, who was an early Marxist thinker himself and taught at the university MaoZedong studied at, there was a problem in Marxist theory in China though, MaoZedong and Li Dazhao had to tweak the theory, Li Dazhao said Marxism could be based on the peasantry, he said everyone has been victimized by western imperialism, he influences MaoZedong who later becomes a major player in the Chinese Communist movement The Long March – (1934) the Communists have a power base in the south but are seeking one in the north, so MaoZedong coordinates this “Long March,” they marched from the south to the northwest, and it was treacherous, they started out with 100,000 troops, but the KMT led by Chiang KaiShek attacked them all along the way, the 100,000 troops became about 4,000 (that many died or were killed), in the minds of many this effort solidified the Communist movement, even though many died the movement gained momentum Then in 1937, Japan invaded China. So the KMT are now fighting both the Communists and the Japanese. Chiang KaiShek sought assistance again but did not get it until 1941 when the west got involved with WWII. Chiang KaiShek was not democratic but the U.S. wanted to see democratic reforms in China. The U.S. did not press the issue; they just needed China to defeat the Japanese. Although Japan is out of the war (after the U.S. nukes them), there is still a struggle between the KMT and the Communists. This continues on until Mao March 28April 1, 2016 Zedong wins in 1949. The Communists take over and force Chiang KaiShek to leave China. He goes to Taiwan and sets up his own government. This is a game changer now. The Communists now rule China and Russia has nuclear weapons in 1949. CHINA UNDER MAO In 1949, Mao and the Communists were successful in taking over China. This communism focused on the Chinese peasantry. Marxism, to some extent, had to be tweaked to meet China’s circumstances. Mao says the peasantry is the backbone of the revolution. o Mao goes to Russia not long after coming to power in China (he wanted to learn from the best). He admired what he saw in Russia and was very much influenced. Purges – Mao purged the landowning elite, he held village trials in which peasants could come forward and vent against their owners (essentially it was payback time), many people were executed during these purges [probably around 3 million people were killed because they were capitalist in the countryside], the land was given to peasants who became small proprietors, this was popular among the people Collectivization – later in the 1950s Mao continued with the idea of collectivization (take land from peasants and set up huge collectivized farms that are run by the village as a whole), he sort of started his own 5YearPlan, this was not very productive because the peasants didn’t like it, so it was a bit of a set back “Let a thousand flowers bloom” – this was Mao’s program of self examination, selfcriticism, he invites intellectuals to offer their opinions and to critique what is good/bad about society, it was a program of total openness, this was to promote policies that were productive and good for China, this kind of took an ugly turn, Mao now knew who his enemies were so he punished them by sending them to prison or sending them to the countryside to work on peasant communes Great Leap Forward – (1958) this followed the “Let a thousand flowers bloom” program, this is Mao’s 5YearPlan, he wants to see rapid industrial development in China, he wants to carry out a revolution this way (remember he is all about the peasants), so he conceptualizes industrialization, industrialization takes place within cities (its an urban phenomenon by definition), but he remakes it a rural phenomenon, he wants the peasants to be super March 28April 1, 2016 productive agriculturally, they were able to construct dams and such in their freetime (they had to be very productive in order for this to happen), they would provide all the food, and this all took place in their backyards, this is what makes this program so unique, the effects of this plan are a complete disaster, it doesn’t work at all, it was also a human nightmare, many people died (20 30 million) from hunger in the 1950s (from major drought/failure of this program) There was a high birth rate during this time as well, it became a dangerous birth rate because society couldn’t support it, the West offered to help with this (birth control), Mao said “thanks, but no thanks,” he didn’t agree with birth control, he said they could take care of it himself, basically they restricted the number of children families could have The programs went so poorly that some of the Communist leaders emerged and proposed new ideas. o Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai – pragmatic way of thinking, they said they need to use profit and market incentive to grow the economy, this did not sit well with Mao, he considers them “capitalistroaders” o Cultural Revolution – (19651968) this was an effort, by Mao, to get rid of the “capitalistroaders,” this was complete turmoil, he used the “people’s liberation army” and university/high school students and mobilizes them, they hold demonstrations, speak publicly and name names, they talk about closet capitalists and identify the pragmatists (even if its their own parents), a lot of the elite was punished, some individuals were executed but most were sent to prison or the countryside, it does some damage to China because it removed some of the skilled elite, it was highly destructive, Xiaoping and Enlai were sent to prison and the countryside respectively Red Guard – the student movement within the revolution, they looked at Mao as the “center of the universe,” the Little Red Book was the sayings of Chairman Mao o Finally in 1968, Mao had to put the brakes on the Cultural Revolution, he tried to gain control of communes and cities again, but what happens as a result the pragmatist will eventually reemerge, Xiaoping and Enlai resurface, Mao died in 1976 then Enlai died in 1978 leaving just Xiaoping Women in China – it was a very patriarchal society, most women were still uneducated and lived under their parents, Mao wanted to change things for women in China, women did the behind the scenes work during the revolution but March 28April 1, 2016 they were eventually put on the front lines during the revolution, there was much rhetoric that women should stay at home (Madame Chaing KaiShek said that women should stay home and be virtuous), there were two views: Communist vs. KMT, Mao insisted that women be educated and take jobs outside of the home, his own wife fought alongside the communists in the war Deng Xiaoping came to power in 1978, he implemented Capitalist reforms, allowed peasants to produce for their own profit, he allows certain parts of the industrial sector to be privately owned and run, farming was increasingly private, this led to the creation of a stock market in China, he then allowed in foreign companies, it is a mixed economy, but there is a huge capitalist component o Democracy Movement – freedom of speech, more citizen involvement in government, Wei Jingsheng was a component of this movement, he was an electrician, he was put in jail, this movement survived underground while he was in jail but then it resurfaced in Tiananmen Square in 1989, this is where the conflict (government vs. students) came to light, some 400 students were killed, China was now connected electronically to the outside world THE WAR IN VIETNAM From the American perspective, the war in Vietnam was all about fighting/containing Communism. After Korea, America viewed this as another “Korean War,” in their eyes it was a spread of Communism. They saw it as a domino effect. From the Vietnamese perspective, the war in Vietnam was all about nationalism and decolonization. o Vietnam was a part of the French colony of IndoChina: Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and North Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh – emerges as a political leader in the 1930’s, he becomes a Communist, but he is also a nationalist, he wants to liberate Vietnam from the French (by means of Communism), he gained support over time and when WWII was over Ho Chi Minh and people from Cambodia/Laos went to France and said they wanted independence, France said no and internal conflict broke out o Civil War – (1947) Ho Chi Minh and his followers fought the French, he had an army of about 15,000 o Dienbienphu – (1954) this was a turning point in world history, here Ho Chi Minh and his followers defeated the French army, this inspired nationalism around the world, the French decided to cut their loses and get out of Vietnam Geneva Agreements – (1955) they agreed that they would divide th Vietnam at the 17 parallel into the North and the South, the North March 28April 1, 2016 became the part that Ho Chi Minh and his followers took over, but the idea was that in a couple of years free elections would take place to establish a government to reunite all of Vietnam (temporary division > free elections > unite Vietnam) o Ngo Dinh Diem – he tries to set up a government in South Vietnam, he got a lot of support from the U.S., he tried to set up a democracy but became much more authoritarian, he was Catholic (most Vietnamese were Buddhist), he represented Catholic largescale land owners, when he got into power he used his friends and family members to staff positions, he tends not to favor Buddhists (he disadvantaged them), he doesn’t favor peasants, this all blows up in his face, he also fails to allow the free elections to take place (so they never took place), in the 1960’s people who disagreed with Ngo Dinh Diem (especially Buddhists) would burn themselves in public, in 1963 his army pulled off a feat where they overthrew Diem and assassinated him (the Americans were very involved in this plan) o Nguyen van Thieu – came to power after Diem, there is a lot of dissatisfaction in the countryside that he comes into The U.S. got deeply involved in the Vietnam War as a result of being involved in the Cold War. They sent money to the French in Vietnam to try and help them defeat Minh. In 1954, when the French decide to get out, the U.S. got very worried because they didn’t want Minh to take over Vietnam because he was a Communist (they thought Minh was a puppet of Mao [even though he wasn’t]). The U.S. then began to support Diem because he wasn’t communist, however, they did assist in the assassination when things got out of hand. o National Liberation Front – was the political party that produced the Viet Cong (Anticolonial, Communist, nationalist movement), wanted to get rid of Diem and get rid of U.S. involvement, operated in the countryside with villagers, they used underhanded tactics (like terrorism) to make the people in the countryside support them o Viet Cong – Guerilla, military branch of the National Liberation Front Gulf of Tonkin – the U.S., under JFK, the U.S. continued to get involved, there were many advisors stationed in Vietnam to try and sort things out, Lyndon Johnson took over after JFK was assassinated, anyways there was a U.S. ship attacked by the Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin, so Johnson went to Congress and asked for more money to support the effort against Communism in Vietnam, the U.S. troop strength in Vietnam began to sky rocket in 1965, from this incident forward the U.S. was very much involved in the war March 28April 1, 2016 TET Offensive – a major North Vietnamese offensive against South Vietnam and the U.S., this created so much concern at home, Johnson said he would not run for reelection but it was an indication for how bad things were going, Richard Nixon came into presidency in 1969 o Vietnamization – (1969) Nixon’s idea of preparing the South Vietnamese to take over the war by themselves (reduction), but then became expansion when he sent U.S. troops into Laos and Cambodia o Saturation Bombing – it was one raid after another, essentially the U.S. was trying to eliminate their will to exist, more ordinance was dropped on North Vietnam than any of the theatres in England during WWI, these bombings did not work at all, it actually strengthened the North Vietnamese resolve, thus they turned to negotiations Finally, in the fall of 1972 when Nixon was running for his second term, he announced that peace was at hand with the Vietnamese, they were able to negotiate factors in 1973 o The war at home (in the U.S.) – it was the first war covered by T.V. correspondence, television journalists were in the field recording what was happening, this galvanized protest movements that reached a peak around 1968 when the U.S. stationed troops in Cambodia, there was a draft in the U.S. (18 year old men were being plucked and sent overseas), Nixon’s policies also angered/worried a lot of people, the largest protest was held at Kent State University, the Ohio guard was called to shut down the protest and the guards were forced to fire on the crowd (4 people were killed), this unrest at home forced the U.S. government to seek out negotiations and end the war In the end, 12 million Vietnamese died and 59,000 Americans died, and finally Vietnam was reunited