Week 14 Notes
Week 14 Notes PSYCH 280
Popular in Psych Childhood and Adolescence
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 280 at Kansas State University taught by Mark Barnett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psych Childhood and Adolescence in Psychlogy at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
In uences of School School impacts children in many different ways All the hours over 17000 hours in 12 years Textbooks and Readers Hidden messageincidental learning learn from story in book Typically re ects middleclass values Portrayals of strong character or strong themes Some effort to provide children with more racially an ethnically diverse strong characters Sex stereotyping in children39s readers and schools Men hard working businessman Women comforting woman unambitious Teachers39 Expectations Our expectations in uence children39s selfperceptions and behaviors Selffulfilling prophecies Research on teachersquot expectations Rosenthal and Jacobson39s Classic Study Pygmalion in the Classroom Sibling Status Academics and athletics Teachers expect some from littler siblings Brophy and Good39s extension of the Rosenthal and Jacobson research Focusing on the process associated with teachers39 expectations Creativity and The Traditional School Conceptualization and assessment of creativity Guilford39s quotStructure of the Intellect quot Model Fluency facility which one can retrieve creative information Flexibility ability to use variety of approaches to solve problems Elaboration ability to fill in details of basic concept Uniqueness ability to generate ideas that are novel and original Torrance39s quotMinnesota Tests of Creative Thinkingquot Interviewed different types of creative people to understand their process quotproduct impairmentquot give them common toy and ask how to make it more fun quotjust supposequot give unrealistic scenario and ask what the result would be of it quotjust suppose rain stopped in the airquot quotunusual usesquot give them a paper clip ask what they can use for Responses scored on Idea uency have many responses Flexibility different type of answers Elaboration elaborating on story how much Originality how frequent is this response compared to other kids answers Creativity and The Traditional Classrooms Guildford39s quotStructure of the Intellectquot Model Torrence39s quotMinnesota Tests of Creative Thinkingquot H does highly creative child fare in traditional classroom Teachers and peers think negatively to creative child My does the highly creative child have difficulty Schools tend to emphasize Convergent thinking and not Divergent creative thinking Creativity scores are not correlated highly with grades IQ are ore correlated with grades and school Also teachers think they are losing control with creative child child may have crazy answer that makes the other kids laugh causing problems think it39s disruptive Can creativity be enhanced and encouraged in the classrooms Torrence39s Review Teacher modeling creativity Teachers reinforcing creativity Use of sociodramatic play training pretend you39re in a rocket ship and have kids tell the story and act it out Concluding comments of creativity Good teachers can combine convergent and divergent thinking Intrinsic motivation make learning enjoyable and fun Peer Popularity of Sociometrics Highly creative kid often not very popular Assessing children39s sociometric status Nomination Procedure Category Rating Positive Negative Popular Hi Many Few Neglected Lo Few Few Rejected Lo Few My Controversial Med Some m Rating procedure Neglected invisible kids don t play with them but don39t have problem with them Rejected specifically not liked by other kids Controversial right in the middle One more category Aggressive rejected more school problems than submissive Submissive rejected shy quiet withdrawn Some differences between popular and unpopularrej ected child Popular More social skills more cooperative nicer to othersconsiderate Better entry behavior Rejected Poor interaction skills disruptive aggressive draw attention Much worse entry behavior scores try to disrupt the game need to take lead of group Impact of Child39s Sociometric Status e g rejected child at highest risk of delinquency and dropping out of school Consistency in Children39s Sociometric Status Overtime Why do unpopular children generally remain unpopular Role of quotreputationquot or quotselffulfilling prophecyquot If someone believes they39re unpopular they begin to act more unpopular with negative behavior Is there anything that can alter a child39s sociometric status 1 Having teacher like and respond favorably toward a kid 2 Participate in sports 3 Positive responses for those who are attractive 4 Moving from one school to another Learning Better Social Skills Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Cognitive e g alter the quothostile attribution biasquot of reactive aggressiverejected children gt thinking differently Behavioral teach specific interpersonal skills Talk to other children appropriately cooperate Final comment regarding effort to enhance rejectedneglected child39s social status individuals that can interact more appropriately are more likely to react to difficult times better than neglected individuals Adolescence Adolescence is like a quotbridgequot between childhood and adulthood Important changes occur quoton the bridgequot Framework for Adolescences39 development varies from place to place Neugarten39s notion of quotSocial Clockquot Lower class SES set clock earlier than middle class Physical Growth and Development Puberty time during adolescence when individual when individual reaches sexual maturity Marked by physical and psychological changes Adolescent quotGrowth Spurtquot Associated with sex differences Changes in Body Proportions Role of subcutaneous body fat mostly in boys within months of child is taller and bigger Asynchrony in Physical Development Extremities initially grow more rapidly than trunk Changing Growth Patterns Adolescents growing taller and heavier than ancestors Adolescents reaching puberty and full adult height earlier than ancestors Early vs Late Adolescents Description and Comparison Early Maturing Boys Heavy taller stronger athletic popular leaders Late Maturing Boys Smaller than most the people in their classes extracurricular band newspaper chest club etc Early Maturing Girls Quicker than the boys uncomfortable difference stand out awkward difficulty with friends and boys Late Maturing Girls Petite disadvantaged late maturing girls have an advantage over early maturing girls Early maturing boys have an advantage over late maturing boys Independence Striving in Adolescence More of a quotdevelopmental taskquot in individualistic than collectivistic cultures A couple factors that in uence the adolescent39s striving for independence 1 Level of Social and Cultural Encouragement 1 Schiamberg39s contrasting of quotslow movingquot and quotfast movingquot cultures 2 Slowmoving Initiation CeremoniesRites of Passage 3 Fastmoving Greater emphasis on independence quotbreaking awayquot and more conducive to quotalienationquot 4 Question Do we have any clear quotRites of Passagequot for adolescents in the US 2 The ParentAdolescent Relation
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