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Chem Notes week 13

by: Andrea Scota

Chem Notes week 13 CHE 106 - M001

Andrea Scota
GPA 3.7

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Notes for chemistry week 13
General Chemistry Lecture I
R. Doyle
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Scota on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 12/06/15
Pink- mentioned in class Chem Notes Week 13 TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 10 (Sections 10.1-10.4) Gases Characteristics of Gases (10.1)  Substances that are gases at room temp tend to be molecular substances with low molar masses  Air is a mixture of mainly N 2nd O an2 is the most common gas we encounter here on Earth  Vapors are liquids and solids that can also exist in the gas state  Gases are compressible  Gases mix in all proportions because their component molecules are so far apart Pressure (10.2)  Pressure conveys the idea of force, a push that tends to move something- in science, pressure (P) is the force, F, that acts on a given area, A. o P = F/A  To describe the state or condition of a gas, we must specify three other variables besides P: volume (V), temperature (T), and quantity (n). Volume is usually measured in liters, temperature in Kelvin, and quantity of a gas in moles. o Pressure is the force per unit area o Measured in the SI unit, pascals, Pa (1 Pa = 1 N/m ) 2  Named for Blaise Pascal 5 5 2 o The bar is another related unit: 1 bar = 10 Pa = 10 N/m  A barometer is used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere  Standard atmospheric pressure: corresponds to the typical pressure at sea level o Use to express gas pressure, such at the atmosphere (atm) and the millimeter of mercury (mm Hg), called the torr.  1 torr = 1 mm Hg 5  Also, 1 mm Hg = 1.01325 x 10 Pa  Thus, 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.01325 x 10 Pa 5 = 1.01325 bar  Manometers are commonly used to measure the pressure of an enclosed gas The Gas Laws (10.3)  There are several simple gas laws  Boyles Law: the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure (one gets smaller as the other gets larger) o V = constant x (1/p) OR PV= constant o P x V = P x V f f i i o Value of the constant depends on the temperature and amount of gas in sample o Boyle’s law is important to scientific history because is was the first to carry out experiments in which one variable was symmetrically changed to determine the effect on another value  Charles’s Law: the volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature o V/T = constant  Avogadro’s Hypothesis: equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules  Avogadro’s Law: the volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas o V/n = constant o n is the number of moles o For instance, doubling the number of moles of gas causes the volume to double if T and P stay the same  Each gas law is a special case of the ideal gas equation The Ideal Gas Equation (10.4)  We can combine Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and Avogadro’s Law into a general gas law known as the ideal gas law. o Ideal gas: hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature relationships are described completely by the ideal-gas equation o PV = nRT o R is known as the gas constant and depends on the units of P, V, n, and T. But is most commonly known in this chapter as R = 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K because pressure is most commonly given in atmospheres o The volume of one mole of gas is the molar gas volume, V m  We can use the ideal gas equation to calculate variations in one variable when one or more of the others are changed  Most gases at pressures less than 10 atm and temperatures near 273 K and above obey the ideal gas law reasonably well  The conditions of 273 K (0 C) and 1 atm are known as the standard temperature and pressure (STP)  In all applications of the ideal-gas equation we must remember to convert temperatures to the absolute temperature scale (kelvin scale)


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