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Bio Notes week 13

by: Andrea Scota

Bio Notes week 13 BIO 121 - M001

Andrea Scota
GPA 3.7
General Biology I

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Bio notes for week 13
General Biology I
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Scota on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 12/06/15
mentioned in class Bio 121 Notes Week 13 Class Amphibia Salamanders frogs and toads caecilians Most return to water to reproduce or nd really weird ways around it Must have water for sperm to swim to egg outside body Adaptations have allowed for this like some toads who live in the desert Do gas exchange across into blood vessels at the surface of their skins simple lungs with little surface area Very simple with smooth moist skin some secrete poisons and such Evolution of the amniotic egg Insert diagram Amnion protects embryo Many tetrapods retain the amnion inside us mimics the water environment that fishy ancestors used to develop in Yolk sac with stored lipids and foods Class Reptilia paraphyletic group dinosaurs turtles lizards and snakes alligators Characteristics dry skin with horny scales Lungs with many chambers Three chambered heart some separation of oxygenrich and oxygenpoor blood Birds Adaptations for powered ight 1 feathers 2 wings 3 light hollow bones containing air spaces Four chambered heart Enthoderms Mammals Characterized by 1 hair 2 mammary glands 3 red blood cells without nuclei 4 three middleear bones 5 and some other things Endotherms Monotremes Holotheria Duck billed platypus spiny anteaters lay eggs Marsupials Metatheria Include pushed mammals kangaroos opossums Young are born in embryonic stage Complete development in mother s marsupium nourished with milk from mammary glands Placental Mammals Characterized by placenta for exchange between embryo and mother What is the biggest environmental problem facing the Earth s ecosystems at this time Human population growth TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Ecology is the scienti c study of the interactions between organisms and the environment These interactions can be organized into hierarchy that ranges from organism to the planet 0 Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cell OOOOOOOO Earth s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly 521 0 Climate the long prevailing weather conditions in a given area has the most signi cant in uence on the distribution of organisms on land 0 Pour physical factors temperature precipitation sunlight and wind are important 0 Macroclimate climate patterns on the global regional and landscape level 0 Microclimate very ne localized patterns Global climate patterns are largely determined by the input of solar energy and Earth s revolution around the sun 0 The changing angle of the sun over the year bodies of water and mountains exert seasonal regional and local effects on the macroclimate 0 Ocean currents in uence climate along coasts by heatingcooling the air Coastal areas are wetter than inland o Mountains in uence air ow over land and affect amount of sunlight reaching an area and thus the local temperature and rainfall Fine scale differences in abiotic nonliving factors such as sunlight and temperature determine microclimate 0 One way to predict possible effects of future climate change is to look back at changes that have occurred since last ice age ended 0 Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the air are warming Earth and altering the distributions of many species The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance 522 Biomes major life zones characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or by the physical environment in aquatic biomes Climographs a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in particular region show that temperature and precipitation are correlated with biomes Because other factors also play roles in biome location biomes overlap in areas of integration called ecotone which may be wide or narrow Terrestrial biomes are often named for major physical or climatic factors and for their predominant vegetation Vertical layering of vegetation is an important feature of terrestrial biomes o In many forests layers from top to bottom consist of upper canopy the lowtree layer the shrub understory the ground layer of herbaceous plants the forest oor and the root layer 0 In ecological terms disturbance is an event such as a storm re or human activity that changes a community removing organisms from it and altering resource availability 0 In uences the type of vegetation found in biomes o Humans have altered much of the Earth s surface replacing natural terrestrial communities such as the tropical rainforest desert savanna chaparral temperate grassland northern coniferous forest tundra and the temperate broadleaf forest with urban and agricultural ones 0 The pattern of climatic variation is as important as the average climate in determining where biomes occur Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of the Earth 523 Aquatic biomes are characterized primarily by their physical environment rather than by climate and are often layered with regard to light penetration temperature and community structure 0 Marine biomes have a higher salt concentration that fresh water biomes Zones 0 Photic zone upper zone where sufficient enough light for photosynthesis to occur 0 Aphotic zone lower where little light penetrates Together the photic and aphotic zone make up the pelagic zone Abyssal zone 20006000 m deep 0 Benthic zone below all the rest made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments Occupied by communities called benthos they feed on dead organic material that falls from the upper ocean called detritus In ocean and in most lakes an abrupt temperature change called a thermocline separates a more uniformly warm upper layer from more uniformly cold deeper waters 0 Many temperate lakes undergo turnover or mixing of water in the spring and fall that send deep nutrient rich water to the surface and shallow oxygen rich water to deeper levels 0 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species 524 0 Species distributions are consequence of both ecological and evolutionary interactions through time Ecologists want to know not only where species occur but also why those species occur where they do 0 WHY IS SPECIES X ABSENT FROM AREA 0 Does dispersal limit its distribution If yes area is inaccessible or insufficient time o If no Does behavior limit its distribution If yes habitat selection 0 If no Do biotic factors other species limit its distribution If yes predation parasitism competition disease o If no Do abiotic factors limit its distribution Yes Chemical factors such as water oxygen salinity pH soil nutrients Physical factors such as Temperature light soil structure re moisture Figure 505 Flowchart effectors limiting geographic distribution Species absent because of l V Area inaccessmblle was or insml cient 1 time Yes Predation imam immsal r 7 Habitat selection Paiiasitli linsg Oxygen Heliumim as Wmlpa t39t39on i Chemical Salinity Mo quot Biotin quotfactors 593159 tasters piH No r atria 3oil mews lm a nutrients No clm39 etc Temperatle h l i ll 3 Physical mum s structu re Fife Moisture etc Wy gh l 1 Psalm Education inc publlshlng as Benjamin Cummings TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 54 Community Ecology A community is a group of populations of different species living close enough to interact Community interactions are classi ed by whether they help harm or have no effect on the species evolved 541 o A variety of interspeci c interactions such as competition predation herbivory symbiosis and facilitation affect the survival and reproduction of the species that engage in them within a community 0 Competitive exclusion states that two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist permanently in the same place 0 Resource partitioning the differentiation of ecological niches sum of species use of biotic and abiotic factors in its environment that enables species to coexist in a community Interspeci c competition has negative affects on both survival and reproduction of the predators and prey When two or more species compete for a resource that is in short supply 0 Character displacement is when sympatric populations that would potentially compete for resources show differences in body structure and in the resources they use Predation has positive affects on survival and reproduction of the predator but negative affects on the prey One species the predator kills and eats the other the prey Predation has led to diverse adaptations including o Aposematic coloration warning coloration o Cryptic coloration camo ouge o Batesian mimicry harmless species mimics harmful one o Mullerian mimicry two or more unpalatable species resemble each other Herbivory has positive affects on survival and reproduction of the predator but negative affects on the prey An herbivore eats part of a plant or algae Symbiosis Individuals of two or more species live in close contact with one another Symbiosis includes parasitism mutualism and commensalism o Parasitism has positive affects on the survival and reproduction of the predator but negative affects on the prey The parasite derives its nourishment from a second organism its host which is harmed o Mutualism has positive affects on the survival and reproduction of both the predator and prey Both species bene t from the interaction 0 Commensalism has positive affects on the survival and reproduction of the predator and no affects on the prey One species bene ts while the other is unaffected Facilitation either has positive affects on the survival and reproduction of the predator and the prey or has no affect on the predator and positive affects on the prey Species have positive effects on the survival and reproduction of other species without the intimate contact of a symbiosis Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities 542 0 Species diversity the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community Two things make this up 0 Species richness is the number of different species in the community 0 Relative abundance the proportion each species represents of all the individuals in the community 0 More diverse communities typically produce more biomass total mass of all organisms in habitat and show less yeartoyear variation in growth and are more resistant to invasion by exotic species 0 Invasive species organisms that become established outside their native range Trophic structure feeding relationships between organisms in community Key factor in community dynamics Food chain link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores Food webs food chains that are liked together branching form complex trophic interactions Food chains are relatively short because of energetic hypothesis which suggests that the length of a food chain in limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain Only about 10 of energy stored in organic matter of each trophic level is converted to organic matter at next trophic level Dominant species species that are most abundant of that collectively have the highest biomass Keystone species not usually most abundant but exert strong control over the community structure by their pivotal ecological roles or niches Ecosystem engineers species that dramatically alter their environment also called quotfoundation species The bottomup model proposes au unidirectional in uence from lower to higher trophic levels in which nutrients and other abiotic factors primarily determine community structure The topdown model proposes that control of each trophic level coms from the trophic level above with the result that predators control herbivores which in turn control primary producers o Ecologists have applied this model to improve water quality in polluted lakes this process is called bio manipulation Attempts to prevent algal blooms and eutrophication by altering the density of higher level consumers instead of using chemical treatments Disturbance in uences specie diversity and composition 543 Recall disturbance is an event such as a storm re ood drought or human activity that changes a community by removing organisms from it or altering resource availability Increasing evidence suggests that disturbance and lack of equilibrium of community constantly changing after disturbance rather than stability and equilibrium are the norm for most communities Intermediate hypothesis states that moderate levels of disturbance foster greater species diversity than of high or low levels of disturbance 0 High levels of disturbance decreases diversity by creating environmental stress 0 Low levels of disturbance can reduce diversity by allowing competitively dominant species to exclude nondominant ones Ecological succession is the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance 0 Primary succession occurs where no soil exists when succession begins 0 Secondary succession begins in area where soil remains after a disturbance Biogeographic factors affect community diversity 544 0 Species richness greatly declines along a latitudinal gradient from the tropics to the poles The greater age of tropical environments may account for greater species richness 0 Climate is other key factor in latitudinal gradients mainly sunlight and precipitation o Evapotranspiration measuring the evaporation of water from soil and plants 0 Species richness or greatly related to community s geographic size Speciesarea curve all other factors being equal the larger the geographic area of a community the more species it has in part because larger areas offer a greater diversity of habitats and microhabitats Species richness on islands depends on island size and its distance from the mainland 0 Island equilibrium model says that species richness on island reaches an equilibrium where new immigrations are balanced at the same time by extinctions Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally 545 Pathogens diseasecausing microorganisms viruses viroids or prions Pathogens in uence community structure in both marine and terrestrial environments Zoonotic pathogens are transferred from other animals to humans and cause the largest class of emerging human diseases 0 Community ecology provides framework for identifying key species interactions associated with such pathogens and for helping track and control their spread TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Ecosystem the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they interact Physical laws govern energy ow and chemical cycling in ecosystems 551 0 Many ecosystem approaches are based on laws of physics and chemistry 0 The rst law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created nor destroyed but on transferred or transformed Amount of energy stored in organic molecules must equal the total solar energy intercepted by the plant minus the amounts re ected and dissipated as heat Energy is conserved but degraded to heat during ecosystem processes 0 Law of conservation of mass matter cannot be created or destroyed Chemical elements enter and leave an ecosystem and cycle within it Inputs and outputs are generally small compared to recycled amounts but balance determines whether ecosystem gains or loses and element over time 0 Primary producers the trophic level that ultimately supports all others consists of autotrophs plants algae photosynthetic prokaryotes Primary consumers herbivores that eat primary producers Secondary consumers carnivores that eat herbivores Tertiary consumers carnivores that eat other carnivores Detrivoresdecomposers consumers that get nutrients from dead material Figure 554 Key Chemical cycling Energy flow Detritus a iiiiiicirciodiirgaquotismS 39 V 39 detritivores Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems 552 0 Primary production amount of light energy converted into chemical energy by autotrophs during a given period sets spending limit for entire ecosystems energy budget 0 Gross primary production GPP the amount of energy from light converted to the chemical energy of organic molecules per unit time 0 Net primary production NPP the energy accumulated in autotroph biomass o Equals the GPP energy used by primary producers for respiration 0 Net ecosystem production the total biomass accumulation if an ecosystem de ned as the difference between gross primary production and the total ecosystem respiration In aquatic ecosystems light and nutrients limit primary production In terrestrial ecosystems climatic factors such as temperature and moisture affect primary production at large scales but soil nutrient is oftentimes the local limiting factor Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10 efficient 553 o The amount of energy available to each trophic level is determined by the net primary production and the production efficiency 0 Production efficiency the efficiency with which food energy is converted to biomass at each link in the food chain net secondary production X 100 assimilation of primary production Trophic efficiency the percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next typically 10 Pyramids of net production and biomass re ect low trophic efficiency Tertiary A 39 quot 39 sunsumsrs Secsndary consumers Primary consumers Primary pmducsrs Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems 554 0 Water moves in a global cycle driven by solar energy 0 The carbon cycle primarily re ects the reciprocal processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration 0 Nitrogen enters ecosystem through atmospheric deposition and nitrogen xation by prokaryotes 0 The portion of a nutrient in a particular form and it cycling in that form may vary among ecosystems largely because of differences in the rate of decomposition 0 Nutrient cycling is strongly regulated by vegetation o The Hubbard Brook case study showed that logging increases water runoff and can cause large losses of minerals THE WATER CYCLE I I lllll atmmap hg 39 Transport over land ph h illlEsls Solar energy mllulgr nmmmMn Net movememnf Hr vapor by indl Precipitation over land Evaporation from ocean quot Hiquot I 1 M MI Evapmransplnrartion from land THEFHDSPHUHUSEVGLE THEmn aENCVCUE Restoration ecologists return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state 555 Bioremediation use organisms like prokaryotes fungi or plants to detoxify polluted ecosystems Biological augmentation ecologists use organisms to add essential materials to ecosystems Introduction to Ecology Flow of energy 1 One way from sun though the system radiated to universe as unrecoverable entropic heat Cycling of materials 1 Materials are reused exchanged back forth between biotic and abiotic components of environment


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