Russian 100 Week of 3/28 Notes
Russian 100 Week of 3/28 Notes 637747
Pennsylvania State University Altoona
Popular in Russian 100
Sarah Jessica Harris
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Jessica Harris on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 637747 at Pennsylvania State University Altoona taught by Irene Hurd in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Russian 100 in Russian at Pennsylvania State University Altoona.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Russian 100 Notes for Week of 3/28/16 ● Stalin Industrialized the country Led his country to victory in WWII ● Russians knew nothing about their history, all they ever knew were lies. They became eventually overwhelmed by it. ● Their number one source of news to this day is television, the most watched program is the evening news.*** ● There are members of the middle class (younger people, under 35 usually) who get their news from the internet. ● Most of the population lives in the cities. Most families have just one child, although the government is pushing for three (trying to grow the population). ● Reasons for smaller families... Expensive/Cost of living Small living areas Not enough day care centers ● Reasons for housing shortage (during Communism) Devastation, most cities were rubble (the rebuilding of factories took precedent over housing) Everyone moved from the rural areas to the cities, the jobs were there, but there just wasn’t enough room for the influx of people (low rents were a big factor). High divorce rate ● Reasons for housing shortages (after the fall of Communism) Many small wars caused people to flee. Refugees*** Returning military. Many officers and their families returning from other countries, now had no place to live (many stayed in tent cities). 23 million homeless people. Russians coming in from the former republics, especially the Baltic countries. After the fall of communism, the government allowed people to privatize housing. The Mafia would come in and threaten the elderly. Threatening to kill them if they did not sell. Family members would also pressure elderly to sell their homes/apartments to them. They were promised that they would still be able to live there, but often they were left Homeless on the streets. ● Child/Parent relationships... Very close family bond No giving off family members as they got older, no assisted living type deal Children are very spoiled, they grow up to be very selfcentered, pampered, etc… They were very use to conforming at home, it gave them a certain rigidity. Young people were expected to conform (this led to high suicide rates in teens, especially in LGBTQ situations) The children are smothered by their parents No young people worked or did chores under communism. Their parents found it shameful (they never understood why Americans let their children work). Now, many of them have to. ● Education (under communism)... Favorite form of punishment (still true today) #1 public shaming, #2 ostracism (never used corporal punishment). Usually start school at the age of 6. Compulsory education is 9 years*** If they plan on going on to a University, it is 11 years. Topics of focus are maths and sciences All schools had the same curriculum and the same books Schools starts Sept. 1 and ends June 30 Some schools have to go in shifts (during the day) School was 30 hours a week, six days a week. Saturdays were half days dedicated to the arts Under communism, uniforms were mandatory. ● Curriculum Highly focused on math and the sciences Very heavy homework load ● Most prestigious professions under Communism Math Sciences Engineering Journalism ● Why journalism? With journalism, there was a chance to be stationed abroad. Particularly in the United States. ● Teachers below the University level, were predominantly female. Administrators were predominantly male. Teaching is not a good paying profession and not considered prestigious. ● University is five years. Education was free, plus government giving you money for food and a place to stay (Stipend). ● To get into a university you had to take an entrance exam. ● Why did the government limit the number of applicants? During communism, the government needed men in the military ● Problems (post fall of communism) Lack of textbooks due to absence of money. Inflation. Young people couldn’t go to school, so they started working. Stipend stopped. Private schools popped up everywhere, parents wanted to send their children to these schools for a better education. Many of the rich sent their children to boarding schools in England. Attendance to private schools causes many government run schools to close. ● Most prestigious professions after the fall of communism Business Banking Economics Law Computer Programming Foreign Language ● At first, when Russian students went to English boarding schools, they were lazy, did not want to work hard, and were homesick. As time went on, they became some of the best students the schools had. ● Students could make money by tutoring ● Corruption professors would demand bribes from students. A good grade could be 400500 dollars. There was more cheating than ever before Students were disrespectful to their professors Professors, when applying for a job, would provide fake resumes ● Two changes 2009, students must take final exams to graduate high school, but instead of final exams, they have an SAT equivalent. Many universities require an interview, in addition to exam scores. ● Stereotypically, Russians are workshy, lazy, like to drink, and have poor business instincts (however, this really only applies to the older generation). The younger generation is very hard working and driven. The older generation, is not ambitious or career driven.***** ● Youth Organizations Under Communism: Little Octoberist League (during communism) had to wear a symbol to show what group they were from. Their symbol was a five pointed star with the face of a little boy (suppose to be Lenin). These school children learned songs and poems about Lenin. Young Pioneers (also during communism) Around age 9. Symbol was a triangular red scarf that they would wear around their necks (they can be compared to boy/girl scouts. All the children/young people belonged to these organizations. The Young Communist League (under communism) Komsomal Started at age 14. Like a training ground for the communist party. Teachers would look for qualities in these young people, that would make them good candidates for the Communist party. Only a few would be admitted, if they were interested. ● If you wanted to be successful in the Soviet Union... Have a higher education Pick the right career (maths, sciences, engineering) Be a member of the Communist party (this was the key) ● Why young people joined the Communist party... They believed in the ideology They wanted to have all the privileges that came along with being a member of the party ● Later, about 7% of the population belonged to the communist party*** ● Communist party privileges... all the best jobs were reserved for them better apartments access to the best shops their own hospitals and doctors, the best of the best their own dacha private clubs could import a doctor from the west some were allowed to travel (always in pairs, never alone) ● Why keep the membership so small? easier to discipline easier to control ● The average young person has very little interest in politics*** ● The Draft... women are not drafted to this day when a male turns 17, he must sign up for the draft at 18, they are drafted can be drafted through the age of 27 the only exemption from the draft, is education ● Life of a recruit hazing payed very little indoctrination they are a great source of cheap labor ● “Rebellion” among young people, in the 70’s. This was during detente. The young people were spoiled and bored and indifferent and wanted contact with the west. They were alienated and had no interest in politics. They didn’t like communism and felt sorry for their parents. They were still extremely patriotic, however, and so conformed, despite their intense fascination with the United States. ● Three things they obsessed about western clothing, especially blue jeans*** music they have a true appreciation for the arts. Anything that was popular in the US was popular there (the only genre they didn’t like was country and bluegrass). fads in the 70’s the major fad was tshirts, the most popular ones, with American logos on them. ● The 90’s the obsession grew even more, by the late 90’s McDonald’s Snickers Pizza (they had never known what this was, previously) Soft drinks (coke and pepsi) Imported beers and vodka (beer took hold, especially with the young people) Cigarettes