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Notes for March 28 - April 1

by: Callisa Ruschmeyer

Notes for March 28 - April 1 ENGL 2250 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Foreign Language > ENGL 2250 - 001 > Notes for March 28 April 1
Callisa Ruschmeyer
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About this Document

Finished notes on Poe Discussed many Feminist writers from the Gallery section Began discussion on Harriet Jacobs' slave narrative
American Literature before 1865
Julia Tigner
Class Notes
American Literature; Tigner; Auburn University; Feminism; Harriet Jacobs; Slave Narratives
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Callisa Ruschmeyer on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2250 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Julia Tigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see American Literature before 1865 in Foreign Language at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
March 28 – April 1 Finishing Notes of Poe  Keep the literary work short o Rationale: the affairs of everyday life will impact how the reader comprehends the work  Work hard to perfect your writing; a great work requires toil and sweat. Avoid fallacy that inspiration and intuition play a large role in the creative process. o Other notes  Creativity is not huge for Poe- hard work is  Poe says that intuition does not play a major role in writing a piece of literature  Thoreau does not consider Poe a sophisticated writer  Cultural obsession with beautiful dead women o Beautiful women are held to a higher standard o More is lost when they die- they are supposedly more important o How does Poe illustrate poetic beauty  Juxtaposing death (which is ugly) to life (which is beautiful)- the beautiful, once living woman, is now dead  What type of lover is expressed- bereaved- filled with grief because of Lenore  Bereaved lover + beauty + death = poetic beauty o Motif with birthmark- Georgiana dies at the end because of the failed experiment  She was also a beautiful lover Gallery: Women, Domesticity, and Publication and Sojourner Truth PDF  Domesticity- matters pertaining exclusively to the home  In term so of women- they should take care of the home and the family and fulfill duties as a wife  Women want freedom though the right to vote Judith Sargent Murray- Desultory Thoughts upon the Utility of Encouraging…  Argues children need to be obedient  Watch self-image  Women were not expected to be all knowing when it comes to education- but they were held to a higher standard when it comes to housework and being a wife  Marriage is considered the end goal for women - they should strive to be a wife and it should be their single source of happiness  How it relates- women are inferior when it comes to intelligence --> Murray challenges women to gain education and not just be a wife - similar to Parton - strive to be a literary woman and not just a house wife  Murray's main point- women are inferior to men and marriage should be the single source of happiness for women  Who is more radical- Parton vs. Murray o Parton is more radical- her content ideas are simply more radical o Parton's aggression toward men is more emotional o Murray is striving for woman to be more independent- which is not really that radical of a subject Eliza Lee Follen- Women's Work  Sarcastic tone  "What have women to do with the abolition of Slavery"  Women are the greatest sufferers of slavery…therefore, they have the most support for their arguments  Women should use their power and work together to protect one another  Connections- to Truth- both independent, abolitionists, and then feminists o Follen thought that women were slave to the home o Truth fought for all blacks enslaved  Follen tells all women to get involved- asks all women to put themselves in slaves shoes o Uses rhetorical questions to establish logos --> which evokes emotion (pathos) Sarah Josepha Hale- Books  Talks about education- not suffrage  Be educated to raise children to be educated- but the women should still be bound to the home  She sort of contradicts herself because it never says that she is married and she was a writer herself o Equal education for women, but to be a better mother- not a literate woman  Education makes women better in the private sphere- not the public sphere  Comparison to Murray- how important it is for women to be educated  Hale's ideas about books- they keep your mind alive o Books are friends who refresh your mind o They can be cathartic to women in the private sphere Harriet Beecher Stowe- Feeling  She does not fit in with this group of writing  She agrees with gender roles and how children should be treated  Feeling comes with risk- when people act on their feelings, they normally do not conform to the ways of society  Connection to Sarah Hale- you can reach a broader audience when you write about your feelings o Sarah Hale connects to audience through writing and Stowe though speaking  Quote on page 839- those who feel get hurt (comes with risk), so many it is best not to feel o Those who feel should not be envied because they have more pain in their life  Sentimentalism- idea of trying to evoke feeling and emotion; activate conscience o But for a good purpose - desiring compassion to change (like to convince readers that slavery is bad) o Activating conscience in this piece- suggests feelings should be okay to have; you should not be shunned for showing one's true emotions Sarah Willis Parton  Man would rather have a loving than literate wife- wants all her focus on him  Literate = unfeminine --> but Parton refutes this claim  She is a humorous and sarcastic writer  Connections to other texts o Unfortunate view on men- "men are tyrants"  Said by Abigail Adams who spoke out against men through writing  Both are very blunt so that their ideas are clear for everyone to understand  Women were also not supposed to talk about these ideas  The public sphere was for men Phoebe Cary- Advice Gratis to Certain Literary Women  Women not credited for hard work  Cary tells literary women how to behave and do not get caught up in what femininity means  Women try to fluff work (try and sound smart) but they should just write how they want to  She is giving this advice to only certain women- those who are trying to use their charm in the literary sphere  Rome = public writing sphere that does not really allow women (6th stanza)  Connection to Parton- Cary is saying that you can be a woman and be domestic, yet still be wise and literate o Parton- husband did not want a literary woman because she wouldn't be feminine o Women can be both feminine and wise at the same time o Cary says that if you want to be serious about work, you must choose to be literary above feminine- must abandon girlish practices Sojourner Truth- But Ain't I a Woman  Recognizing the fact that she can be part of both the public and private sphere  As a former slave, she should not be as public with her opinions  She complicates the feminist sphere- fights for women's rights, but has a primary purpose to abolish slavery  Which version is most accurate? Probably the word-for-word one from Truth  The translated version has the most effect because it is more put together and evokes more emotion; but really the most accurate because it was written closer to when Truth actually spoke (the second version was written further from Truth's speech)  Connection to Stowe- both women who wrote abolitionist messages as their primary topics  Connection to Follen- both antislavery; and both employ the emotional, sentimentalism rhetoric; both use Christian Rhetoric o Truth talks about Eve and how women are very influential and powerful o Follen talks about the two women who were with Christ when he was lead to his death o Both talk about the humanity in slaves Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Witten by Herself The Cult of True Womanhood  Coined by Barbara Welter (1966) 1. Piety- religions 2. Purity- heterosexual; sex is for marriage 3. Submissions- being submissive to husband 4. Domesticity- women's sphere is in the home; primary role to raise children  Are these values possible under slavery?  Can enslaved/black women of time from be raped? o Who decides legally if an action is rape? The court or government o Does the court regard black women as citizens? No --> they are regarded as property; therefore, their owners can do whatever they want with them o So, for this time frame, the answer is no  Enslaved women usually raped by master- but how do they still epitomize what 19th century women should do Prefatory Materials Authenticating Devices  Legitimize their work  Idea that only white men are credible enough to do literary work  Jacobs needs her work legitimized (to also humanize her) Main Goal of Writer in a slave narrative  Provide logic and rationale  Only one side of the story has been told  Show they slave are human also Concubinage  Referring to the notion of slavery and prostitution together (i.e. sex slave) Direct Address  Directly addresses the reader  Very frequent in Jacobs' address  See if some after something bad happens- evoke emotion- and reassure reader that the horrors of slavery are real o Legitimizes her experiences o Elicits sympathy o Does this so people take action to help her- page 869  Jacob's audience- white women of the north Sentimental Novel  Novel which seeks to incite feelings; activate the conscience; pull at the heartstrings of reader o Talks about her family- she lives in a nuclear family so does not know she is a slave until she is 6 o She speaks about her children and grandmother- her grandmother has to sell her son at one point and describes how painful that was  Relationship between mother and child  Moral Suasion: notion that you can appeal to a person's morality in order to change his/her political ideology o Jacob's employs this within her narrative o The way to change some person's political standpoint is to appeal to the audience's morality


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