1 week of Sociology Notes
1 week of Sociology Notes Soc 100-001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter 7- Deviance - Aurora and Newtown: Who’s to blame? - Movies? TV? Video games? - Warped personalities - Physiological disorders- mental illness - School security systems SRO • • Metal detectors - Parents, teachers, politicians, peers • To what extend are we looking at the agents of socialization to blame? • When does it become the fault of television, parents, peers, etc.? - Policies that give us easy access to guns • NRA - Deviance - Deviance- Behavior, belief, or condition that violates signiﬁcant social norms in the society - Statistical deviation- when you are not common • ex. having blue eyes, being 7’2” - General Paradigms of Deviance - Biological- Something in their body(hormonal, genetically, physiologically, biologically) that is an issue or a problem that causes deviance - Psychological- self esteem or personality disorders - Sociological - Sociological perspectives - Functionalist- Deviance is a basic part of social organization. By deﬁning deviance, society sets its moral boundaries. - Interactionist- Deviance is a part of socially constructed reality that emerges in interaction. Deviance comes into being an individuals label something deviant - Conﬂict- Deviance results from inequality. - Functionalist perspective #1 - Merton’s Strain theory- Deviance is a result of a gap between society’s culturally deﬁned goals and the means available to achieve them. - Functionalist Perspective #2 - Opportunity theory- Deviance is a result of a gap between society’s culturally deﬁned goals and the means available to achieve them. Strain plus illegitimate opportunity structures are available • There is something in the way of meeting a goal but there is a deviant way to achieve your goal • Ex. cheating on a test, taking money laying around - Clicker question - Question: Crime differs from deviance in that crime • Answer- is a violation of norms enacted into law - Question: A recent study in an English maximum security prison found that inmates who ate large amounts of potato chips were most likely to be aggressive. This supports the paradigm • Answer- Physiological - Deviance is out there waiting to be discovered - Interactionist Perspective #1 - Labeling theory- acts are deviant or criminal because they have been labeled as such - If different people commit the same deviant act shouldn’t the consequences the same? the answer is no. - Look at who is making the laws? Are thy deviant? • Do they have the right to decide what is deviant and what isn’t? - Question: What percent of the students in the clicker question about the support of marajuana • Answer: 60% support it - A norm violator will be labeled deviant depending on the social characteristics of the: • characteristics of the perpetrator (not so much what you do but who does it) • characteristics of the victim • the characteristics of the person doing the labeling • characteristics of the judge - Interactionist Perspective #2 - The Medicalization of Deviance • There is an increase of deviant acts being labeled as medical conditions and being treated as so The growing inﬂuence of psychiatry and medicine in the United States has • inﬂuenced deﬁnitions of deviance • The medicalization of deviance— the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition - Interactionist Perspective #3 - Differential Association Theory • Deviant behavior is learned in the interaction with others • Inﬂuenced by who we are around - Interactionist Perspective #4 - Hirschi Control Theory • Deviance occurs when social bonds to conventional institutions, such as the family, school, or employer are weak • People will deviate if they don’t have a strong bond with an institution keeping them on track - Question: “Honey, better take all the beautiful vases off the coffee table. Two- year old Ben is coming over this afternoon and will probably destroy them.” What perspective best explains the phenomenon? • Answer: Opportunity Theory - Question: “Beth be sure to be home from the party by 9pm. You know what type of people stay up until 10pm. This supports ____ theory. • Answer: Differential association theory - Conventional Street Crime - Violent-force against others - Property- robbery, larceny, motor vehicle theft - Moral- victimless crimes (prostitution, drug use, illegal pornography) - As John talked about crime he talked about it through a conﬂict theorist mind - Deviance and Inequality- Social Conﬂict Analysis - Deviance reﬂects social inequality - People we commonly consider deviants share the trait of powerless - The norms of any society generally reﬂect the interests of the rich and the powerful - People who threaten the wealthy are deﬁned as thieves or radicals - Conﬂict Perspective #1 - Deviance and Power relations • The lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are often deﬁned as illegal • Social dynamite- rioters • Social junk- poor, homeless • Deviance is deﬁned by those in power over those who don’t have power - Conﬂict Perspective #2 - Deviance and Capitalism • The laws and the criminal justice system protect the power and privilege of the capitalist class • Capitalism is based on private control of wealth • Capitalism depends on productive labor • Capitalism depends on respect for authority • Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo is likely to be deﬁned as a devint - Conﬂict Perspective #3 - Feminist Approches • Liberal- women’s deviance arises from gender discrimination • Radical- focuses on patriarchy Socialistic- emphasizes the effects of capitalism and patriarchy on women’s • deviance - You’re most likely to become the victim of fraud if you belong to which demographic group? - Answer- People over 50 - Question- According to the most recent government survey, which type of scam now lures the most victims? • Answer- Credit related scams - White collar crimes are more severe and harm more people than street crimes - How does the homicide rate in the U.s. compare to other technologically advanced countries? • Answer- it’s much higher - Higher homicide rate is with positive correlation with high incarceration rate - Number in Prison - The U.S. has less than 5 percent of the worlds population - There are 2.3 million people in prisons and jails - That ﬁgure equals 23 percent of the entire world’s prison population - For or Against Capital Punishment- U.S. 1936- 59% for • • 1966-42% for • 1994- 80% for • 2007- 71% for • 2011- 61% for • 2013- 51% for - Social Stratiﬁcation - Social Stratiﬁcation- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy - American Dream- The belief that if people work hard and play by the rules, they will have a chance to get ahead • Is based on the assumption that people in the U.S. have equality of opportunity regardless of their race, creed, color, national origin, sex, or religion - Global Systems of Stratiﬁcation - Slavery- some people are owned by others - The Caste System- people’s status is determined at birth (ascription) - The Class System- people’s status is based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work they do (achievement) - Life Chances- probabilities of beneﬁting or suffering from the opportunities or disadvantages one’s society offers • Life expectancy- how long you live • Principle cause of death- how you die • Physical health Mental health • • Justice system • Economic well-being - Functional Perspective - Davis- Moore thesis- Inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the smooth functioning of society • All societies have certain positions that must be ﬁlled • Some positions are more important than others The most important must be ﬁlled by the most qualiﬁed people • • The positions that are most important for society and that require scarce talent, extensive training, or both must be the most highly rewarded • The most highly rewarded positions should be those that are functionally unique (no other position can perform the same function) - Conﬂict Perspective - Inequality is the result of conﬂict - Differences in resources serve the interest of some and harm others - Inequality is useful only to some people; it is not inevitable - Values and beliefs tend to be ideological; they reﬂect the interests for the more powerful members of society - Cultural Evaluation of Functionalism - If functionalism importance really explains the high reward that people enjoy, how do you measure functional importance? - Functionalist exaggerate social stratiﬁcation role in developing individual talent • Have the rewards for high positions gotten out of class? Are there limits for the rewards? - By contending the social stratiﬁcation beneﬁts all of society, the functionalist ignore how social inequality promotes conﬂict and sometimes outright revolution - Critical Evaluation of Conﬂict Theory - Doesn’t motivate people to perform various social roles that require some system of unequal rewards - Question- Social inequality is greatest in ___ societies. • Answer- Agrarian (agricultural) - The gap between the rich and the poor in the United States is severe but not as bad as Brazil or Mexico. - Compared to Canada, our gap is much larger - Question- The gab between the rich and the poor is greatest in which of the following? • Answer- United States - U.S. Class Structure - Upper (Capitalist) class- 5% • Upper- upper- less than 1%(Gracious living) • Lower- upper- 4%(Gracious living and career, church helps their career) - Middle Class- 45-50% • Upper- middle- 15% (career, more in debt because they know that to get their children ahead education is the key) • Average- middle- 30-35% (Respectability— moral value, being good citizens, being good parents, volunteering in the community, church goers for religious reasons, credit card class, typical American class, tend to be larger families) - Working Class- 33% (Get by, type of job you have— tend to be more hands on work and manual, over all income is lower than middle class because their careers tend to plateau instead of climbing like the middle class, education tends to be lower than the ones above) - Lower Class- 20% -