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Chapter 14 Personality

by: Patrece Savino

Chapter 14 Personality PSY 151

Marketplace > Wake Forest University > Psychlogy > PSY 151 > Chapter 14 Personality
Patrece Savino
GPA 3.644

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lecture notes
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Schrillo
Class Notes
chapter 14 personality psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter 14: Personality  Another intuitively obvious but hard to define topic  Personality: sum of a person’s stable and distinctive styles of thought, behavior, and emotional responses Different Theoretical Approaches to Personality  Psychoanalytic theories o Common denominator is belief in conscious & the power  of the unconscious  Unconscious o Sigmund Freud’s theory is the best known example  Popularized idea of unconscious  motivation/influence  Initially an outgrowth of work on hysteria  Hysteria: condition with physical symptoms, but not physical cause  When he worked with patients of hysteria his  theory evolved o People with hysteria often had a  memory of having been sexually abused as children  initial theory was that  hysteria is caused by sexual abuse   abandoned that theory  this wasn’t  something that actually happened to  them but it was something that they  thought happened  Freud’s Theory:  Structure of Personality o id: storehouse of biological drives –  food, sex, avoidance of pain, operates  based on “pleasure principle,” *not  necessarily conscious  eros: drives associated with sex,  life­giving acts, creativity  libido: drives toward sensual  pleasures  thanatos: drives toward  aggressive and destructive  behaviors o ego: mediates between id and social  reality; largely conscious; reality  principle  roughly your conscious self as you know you to be  you don’t always get what you  want so the ego mediates  between id and reality o superego: internalized moral standards  of culture, family roughly akin to  conscience  conscience not conscious; guilt  Development of Personality in Freud’s Theory o 5 psychosexual stages, with emphasis  on importance of early experience  Oral stage (1  year of life)  Drives revolve around oral  gratificandon, feeding, etc…  Anal stage (2  year of life)  Drives revolve around  excretion (corresponds with  normal time of toilet training)  Phallic stage (3­6 years)  Drives revolve around  genitals – a primitive  sexuality  Latency (7 to puberty)  Everything goes quiet, skills  acquired  Genital stage (puberty )   Sexual drives reawakened  Important events in stage progression o Fixations: inadequate or excessive  gratification at one of the stages in a  fixation; part of personality development  is arrested  oral fixation ? smoking drinking etc  anal fixation ? organizing pencils  on a desk etc  phallic fixation ? inability to  develop appropriate adult sexual  life/orientation o Process of identification  All children initially identify with  mother  In phallic stage, child desires  parent of opposite sex, feels  rivalry with same sex parent   Little boys want mother, see  father as rival, fear father  o Oedipal complex:  boys lust after mother,  conflict with father o Solution is to identify  with father  how they acquire personality  characteristics  Identification imparts sex  role identity and moral value  Little girls want father and  see mother as rival o Elektra complex: girls lust after father, fear  father o Rivalry not as intense  for boys o Defense Mechanisms  Repression  Denial  Projection  Displacement  Reaction Formation  Rationalization  Sublimation  Criticisms of Freud’s Theory o Based on recollections of disturbed  adults o Overemphasis on sexuality o Sexist “penis envy” o Ambiguous un­testable ideas o Possibility that sexual trauma in Freud’s  hysterical patients was real – if so, it  undermines basis for Oedipal and  Elektra complexes  Overall evaluation: most details wrong, but  something to the unconscious motivation idea  o Jung’s Theory  Expands the unconscious  Personal unconscious akin to that in Freud’s theory  Based on the past/experiences  Collective unconscious: reservoir of instinctive  species – based memories reflecting past history of  man  “species” memory – common to all people  from the dawn of time   Basis for this? Analysis of symbolism in  dreams, psychosis, etc…  Collective unconscious populated by  Archetypes o Anima: female side of male o Animus: male side of female o Shadow: dark side of self o Etc…  Jung’s theory of personality (basis of contemporary  Myer­Briggs test)  Introverted vs. extroverted attitude  Thinking vs. Feeling; Sensation vs. Intuition  Life as a process of individuation o Humanistic Personality Theories  Tend to emphasize human potential and  development  Focus on subjective experience  Carl Rogers:   Self concept  real self vs. ideal self o People were falling short of their own  expectations o When the discrepancy between these  two becomes too large, that’s when they visit a psychologist and seek help o Rogers’ approach: getting people’s  ideal selfs to become more human  Abraham Maslow:   Self actualization  Hierarchy of needs o Bottom: basic biological needs (food,  shelter) o Middle: psychological needs o Top: self­actualization  Study people who do “better” than everybody  else/excel at everything  Trait theories of personality  Traits: enduring characteristics such as  shyness, honesty, nervousness, arrogance…  Over 18,000 traits in the dictionary  Factor analysis used to simplify – results vary  depending on assumptions o What traits are correlated with each  other  reduce number of characteristics  Cattell: 16 central traits o Sociable/unsociable o Intelligent/unintelligent o Emotionally stable/unstable o Dominant/submissive  Eysenck: 3 dimensions o Introversion/extroversion o Stability/neuroticism o Psychotocism/nonpsychotocism  Current and most widely supported account o THE BIG 5  Neuroticism vs. stability  Extroversion vs. introversion  Openness to experience vs. non­ openness (curiosity, imagination,  travel)  Do you like new things /  variety  Agreeableness vs. Antagonism  Conscientiousness vs.  Undirectedness   Do you do what you’re  supposed to or not  Issues for trait theories o Why are traits there in the first place? o Not sure for some:  Introversion vs. extroversion may  reflect brain arousal  Introverts have more baseline  brain activation, avoid stimulation  Extroverts have less and seek  stimulation o Genetic contributions: about 0.5  heritability quotients for big­5 traits o Is behavior consistent?  trait by  situation interactions  Fleeson – you vary a lot between  days but over a longer course of  time your traits are pretty  consistent  Behaviorist theories of personality  Measuring personality o Depends on theory o We all do it o Want more objective measures  Reliable  Valid  Where does personality come from? o Harris argument: more formed by peer  interactions in school than what goes on at home  Techniques o Observation  Interview  Rating scale to control bias o Personality inventory (self­report) o Example: Minnesota multiphasic  personality inventory  History  > 500 items  I like to read news magazines  I never have trouble falling asleep  People are out to get me  Special items to detect attempts to improve or lower score, lack of  reading o Projective tests  Rorscach ink blots  Thematic Apperception Test  Tell a story about ambiguous pictures assuming its about  you


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