Chapter 14 Personality
Chapter 14 Personality PSY 151
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter 14: Personality Another intuitively obvious but hard to define topic Personality: sum of a person’s stable and distinctive styles of thought, behavior, and emotional responses Different Theoretical Approaches to Personality Psychoanalytic theories o Common denominator is belief in conscious & the power of the unconscious Unconscious o Sigmund Freud’s theory is the best known example Popularized idea of unconscious motivation/influence Initially an outgrowth of work on hysteria Hysteria: condition with physical symptoms, but not physical cause When he worked with patients of hysteria his theory evolved o People with hysteria often had a memory of having been sexually abused as children initial theory was that hysteria is caused by sexual abuse abandoned that theory this wasn’t something that actually happened to them but it was something that they thought happened Freud’s Theory: Structure of Personality o id: storehouse of biological drives – food, sex, avoidance of pain, operates based on “pleasure principle,” *not necessarily conscious eros: drives associated with sex, lifegiving acts, creativity libido: drives toward sensual pleasures thanatos: drives toward aggressive and destructive behaviors o ego: mediates between id and social reality; largely conscious; reality principle roughly your conscious self as you know you to be you don’t always get what you want so the ego mediates between id and reality o superego: internalized moral standards of culture, family roughly akin to conscience conscience not conscious; guilt Development of Personality in Freud’s Theory o 5 psychosexual stages, with emphasis on importance of early experience Oral stage (1 year of life) Drives revolve around oral gratificandon, feeding, etc… Anal stage (2 year of life) Drives revolve around excretion (corresponds with normal time of toilet training) Phallic stage (36 years) Drives revolve around genitals – a primitive sexuality Latency (7 to puberty) Everything goes quiet, skills acquired Genital stage (puberty ) Sexual drives reawakened Important events in stage progression o Fixations: inadequate or excessive gratification at one of the stages in a fixation; part of personality development is arrested oral fixation ? smoking drinking etc anal fixation ? organizing pencils on a desk etc phallic fixation ? inability to develop appropriate adult sexual life/orientation o Process of identification All children initially identify with mother In phallic stage, child desires parent of opposite sex, feels rivalry with same sex parent Little boys want mother, see father as rival, fear father o Oedipal complex: boys lust after mother, conflict with father o Solution is to identify with father how they acquire personality characteristics Identification imparts sex role identity and moral value Little girls want father and see mother as rival o Elektra complex: girls lust after father, fear father o Rivalry not as intense for boys o Defense Mechanisms Repression Denial Projection Displacement Reaction Formation Rationalization Sublimation Criticisms of Freud’s Theory o Based on recollections of disturbed adults o Overemphasis on sexuality o Sexist “penis envy” o Ambiguous untestable ideas o Possibility that sexual trauma in Freud’s hysterical patients was real – if so, it undermines basis for Oedipal and Elektra complexes Overall evaluation: most details wrong, but something to the unconscious motivation idea o Jung’s Theory Expands the unconscious Personal unconscious akin to that in Freud’s theory Based on the past/experiences Collective unconscious: reservoir of instinctive species – based memories reflecting past history of man “species” memory – common to all people from the dawn of time Basis for this? Analysis of symbolism in dreams, psychosis, etc… Collective unconscious populated by Archetypes o Anima: female side of male o Animus: male side of female o Shadow: dark side of self o Etc… Jung’s theory of personality (basis of contemporary MyerBriggs test) Introverted vs. extroverted attitude Thinking vs. Feeling; Sensation vs. Intuition Life as a process of individuation o Humanistic Personality Theories Tend to emphasize human potential and development Focus on subjective experience Carl Rogers: Self concept real self vs. ideal self o People were falling short of their own expectations o When the discrepancy between these two becomes too large, that’s when they visit a psychologist and seek help o Rogers’ approach: getting people’s ideal selfs to become more human Abraham Maslow: Self actualization Hierarchy of needs o Bottom: basic biological needs (food, shelter) o Middle: psychological needs o Top: selfactualization Study people who do “better” than everybody else/excel at everything Trait theories of personality Traits: enduring characteristics such as shyness, honesty, nervousness, arrogance… Over 18,000 traits in the dictionary Factor analysis used to simplify – results vary depending on assumptions o What traits are correlated with each other reduce number of characteristics Cattell: 16 central traits o Sociable/unsociable o Intelligent/unintelligent o Emotionally stable/unstable o Dominant/submissive Eysenck: 3 dimensions o Introversion/extroversion o Stability/neuroticism o Psychotocism/nonpsychotocism Current and most widely supported account o THE BIG 5 Neuroticism vs. stability Extroversion vs. introversion Openness to experience vs. non openness (curiosity, imagination, travel) Do you like new things / variety Agreeableness vs. Antagonism Conscientiousness vs. Undirectedness Do you do what you’re supposed to or not Issues for trait theories o Why are traits there in the first place? o Not sure for some: Introversion vs. extroversion may reflect brain arousal Introverts have more baseline brain activation, avoid stimulation Extroverts have less and seek stimulation o Genetic contributions: about 0.5 heritability quotients for big5 traits o Is behavior consistent? trait by situation interactions Fleeson – you vary a lot between days but over a longer course of time your traits are pretty consistent Behaviorist theories of personality Measuring personality o Depends on theory o We all do it o Want more objective measures Reliable Valid Where does personality come from? o Harris argument: more formed by peer interactions in school than what goes on at home Techniques o Observation Interview Rating scale to control bias o Personality inventory (selfreport) o Example: Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory History > 500 items I like to read news magazines I never have trouble falling asleep People are out to get me Special items to detect attempts to improve or lower score, lack of reading o Projective tests Rorscach ink blots Thematic Apperception Test Tell a story about ambiguous pictures assuming its about you
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