HIST150 The Russian Revolution
HIST150 The Russian Revolution History 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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HIST150 The Russian Revolutions of 1917 The Eastern Front (Russia fighting Germany and Austria) • Russian army - About 15M soldiers • Maria Leontievna Bochkareva aka Yashka was the first women inWW1 Russian army • Women’s battalion of DEATH • Major problem? Lack of weapons (TQ) • Entered WW1 in 1914 with no weapons • By the end of 1916— 2 million Russian soldiers had been killed; 4 -6 million had been wounded or captured o Soldiers deserting and losing faith in leadership • *****1915—Czar Nicholas II went to the front and took personal command of the military campaign o Why? Morale would boost from the soldiers with his presence there was his goal. § He has no military experience and was told not to do it by his advisors . He went anyway due to his wife and Rasputin § Nicholas was blamed for the disaster on the Front Issues on The Home Front • What happens in Petrograd doesn’t stay in Petrograd? • Food shortages, and inflation occurs • Shortage of bread = bread line • Women could spend 40 hours a week waiting for food • Demonstrations and strikes to show discontent • Police make reports on mothers of families o …exhausted by endless standing in lines at sto res, distraught over their half-starving and sick children, are today perhaps closer to revolution and of course they are a great deal more dangerous because they are a combustion material for which only a single spark should start a revolution February Revolution • Feb 23, 1917: women held demonstration • Chant slogans that express their discontent o “Bead for Workers”, “Down with Starvation”, “Bread and Peace” • Day 1: 87,000 workers left jobs and joined demonstration • 3 days later: there were 300,000 people, shops and factories closed, transportation stopped running • Queen Alexandra sent a telegram to Nicholas o “…Hooligan movement, if only it were colder then people would go home…” • He ordered troops to disperse crowds, but many defected and joined demonstrators • Nicholas was advised to st ep down from power • *****March 2, 1917—Czar Nicholas II abdicated from the throne; he was replaced by a PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (TQ) Provisional Gov. • Wanted democratic system in Russia • Problem: wanted to continue fighting even though it was bad • Unpopular decision to continue war Lenin and Socialism • *****April 1917—Lenin and some of his Socialist followers —the Bolsheviks—arrived in Petrograd • Established a socialist state in Russia Karl Marx • “Revolutions will take place in the most advanced industrial, capitalist society • The downtrodden, exploited proletariat will lead the revolution Lenin: What Is To Be Done? (1902) (TQ) • Revision of Marx • Argued the revolution of Russia will be led by a small party of professional revolutionaries (the Bolsheviks) • Campaigned others for Bolsheviks Lenin’s campaign for followers • Slogans “Peace, Land, Bread, Now” • “All power to the Soviets” • Workers counselors who controlled industry Lenin campaigning Women’s Battalion of Death Red Guard Militia • Leon Trotsky led Red Guard and carried out actions on the night of October 24 -25, 1917 October Revolution • Member of the Red Guard take over communication centers in Petrograd o Railway station o Telephone exchanges o Post office • Broke into the Winter Palace when Provisional Gov. was meeting and arrested them • Bolshevik seized power, little blood drawn • Broke into wine cellar and drank the Ex -Czar’s wine 3 Developments followed the Oct. Revolution • “Now is the beginning of new Russian power” – Lenin • 1. March 1918—peace treaty signed with Germany • 2. 1918-1921—Civil War—White Army vs. Red Army led by Trotsky o White army disliked the Bolsheviks • July 1918—execution of Nicholas II and his family o Were told to go down to the basement and leader of execution squad read the ges in order to fire o When firing finished, Alexis laid in blood and was shot in the head, and Anastasia was stabbed with a battalion o Rumors begin by Bolsheviks , monarchists were moved • 3. *****Lenin’s death and Stalin’s rise to power o 1922—Lenin suffered his first stroke o Lenin’s testament (1922 —Stalin had risen to the position of the General Secretary of the Communist Party) § “Conrad Stalin has unlimited authority in his hands, and I’m not cure if he’ll be capable to using that authority with sufficient caution” § Additional comments, “That is why I suggest that the comrades think about a way of removing him from that post.” o January of 1924—Lenin died 1924-1927—power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky • Stalin built up his power base within the Communist party • Projects himself as Lenin’s chosen successor • Hid Lenin’s Testament o Made irrelevant until 1956 • The falsification of photographs First fake photograph Stalin’s “Revolution from Above” • The authors of your textbook state that it was “the most rapid social and economic transformation any nation has seen in modern history.” • Industrialization speech: o “One feature of the old Russia was the continual beatings she suffered for falling behind, for her backwardness o “We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good in the next ten years” Five Year Plans • Emphasis on the development of heavy industry • Minimal production of consumer goods • 1938 (after the completion o f the first two 5 years plans) o ****400% increase in overall industrial production o **** in 1938 – the Soviet Union was now the 3 major industrial power in the world Conditions of industrial workers • Scarcity and hardship • 1. Cramped living conditions • Rapid industrialization • Communal apartment • Fall in consumer goods during the five year plans • Short supply: clothes, shoes, basic household items, pots and pans *****Collectivization of Agriculture 1929 -1935 • Objective: “Greater output from the land” • Feed industrial workers • Export grain from Soviet Union to acquire items for industrial production • Orders: Stalin orders peasants to give up private lots and animal and work on collective farms • By 1935 collectivization was complete in most areas of the Soviet Union Resistance from kulaks • Those who resisted collectivization burned their farms and killed their livestock • Half the horse population decreased, thus the tractor was invented to represent modern methods • Anti-kulak poster. Seen as standing in the way to progress Results • Stalin’s response— “liquidate them as a class” • 2 million kulaks were sent to labor camps known as gulag or killed of f Gulag labor camp Those who lived on collective farms • Given quotas to meet • “The Second Serfdom” • 1932-33—famine in the southern region of the Soviet Union; the 1933 famine claimed some 3 -5 million lives o Disruptive to agriculture o Stalin still makes them meet their quota o Laissez faire was his motto. “One death is a tragedy, a million is a statistic” *****Stalin’s methods for achieving his revolution 1. Terror a. “To chose one’s victims, to prepare one’s plans minutely… and then to go to bed… there is nothing sweeter in the world.” b. “An Enemy of the People is not only one who does sabotage but one who doubts the rightness of the Party line. And there is a lot of them and we must liquidate them” c. 1937-38—the “Great Terror”; nearly 1 million people killed; 1.5 million people sent to labor camps i. Anyone could be a victim Regularly wrote out death warrants 2. Propaganda a. A.O. Adveinko praised Stalin and introduced the “Cult of Stalin” b. Romance novels emphasized the values of working in the factory c. Paintings: “Higher and Higher” à à à 3. Rewards for workers who earned the titl e, “Stakhanovite” (hero of labor) a. A Stakhanovite was given consumer goods i. Clothes, furniture b. Got their fifteen minutes of fame