Life 103- Animals week 2
Life 103- Animals week 2 LIFE 103
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Three Major Clades of Bilateria: 1) Lophotrochozoa 2) Ecdysozoa 3) Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa: ● Grouped by molecular features ● Named for feeding morphology (“Lophophore”) and larval morphology (“Trophophore larvae”) ● Most diverse body plans ● Most number of phyla -Phylum from the big 9- a) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) ○ Acoelomate ○ Flattened bodies because then more surface area for gas exchange and release of nitrogenous wastes (all passes through body surface) ○ Gastrovascular cavity (not a full tube with mouth and anus) ○ More than half are parasitic- either simply affect host or, like Schistosomiasis, the male and female meet and reproduce in the definitive host, then release eggs into intermediate host where they grow b) Mollusca ○ Second for most diversity ○ Have soft bodies with a hard shell of calcium carbonate (though in some phyla the shell is reduced or lost) ○ All have the body plan of a foot (to move), visceral mass (middle part), mantle (what secretes the shell), and a radula (like a tooth) ○ Most endangered ○ 3 groups: ➢ Gastropods -Gastropod= “stomach foot” -snails and slugs -marine, terrestrial, freshwater ➢ Bivalves -Two parts to shell -clams, mussels, oysters, etc -marine and freshwater ➢ Cephalopods -most neurologically developed (eye behavior, intelligence) -octopuses, squids, nautilus -camouflage and chromatophores (change color) -shell is reduced and internal c) Annelida (segmented or ringed worms) ○ chaetae= bristles made of chitin ○ Predators, filter feeders, and more ○ Motile and sessile ○ Marine, freshwater, terrestrial ➢ Examples: marine worms, leeches, earthworms Ecdysozoa: ● Defined by molecular evidence ● All have an external covering, whether cuticle or exoskeleton ● Molt with growth (ecdysis) ● Most diverse animal group -Phylum from the big 9- a) Nematoda (roundworms) ○ Motile ○ Half parasitic, half free-living ○ Live in nearly all habitats ○ Play important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling ➢ Caenorhabditis elegans (1mm long, simple, useful as a model organism in research) b) Arthropoda ○ Motile ○ Most diverse (millions of species) ○ Every feeding style ○ Marine, freshwater, terrestrial ○ “arthro”=joint, “pod”=oot ○ All have: ■ Segmented body ■ Paired limbs on segments ■ Hard exoskeleton (made of chitin) ■ Jointed appendages ■ Open circulatory systems (hemolymph- carries only food, not oxygen/carbon dioxide) --gas exchange by tracheae and tracheoles (holes and ductwork through their bodies that allow for gas diffusion) ➢ Chelicerata -spiders, mites, scorpions, etc -Chelicerae= feeding appendages, often venomous -Cephalothorax=head+thorax (first 2 big segments) -Abdomen -4 pairs of walking legs -Pedipalps- specialized for functions such as sexual reproduction ➢ Crustacea - crabs, shrimp, copepods, barnacles, etc -many pairs of walking legs (much variation) -antennae (sensory)- shared characteristic with insects -cephalon, thorax, abdomen ➢ Insecta -beetles, butterflies, ants, bees, etc -3 pairs of walking legs -antennae -wings for true flight (not gliding) -metamorphosis- larval form pupates then forms adult; purpose is so that babies do not compete with adults for resources (larval state is eating machine, adult state is to reproduce) Deuterostomia: ● Only 3 phyla ● Deuterostome development ● Defined by molecular evidence -Phylum from the big 9- a) Echinoderms ○ Motile ○ Predators and filter-feeders ○ Marine b) Chordata ○ Motile and sessile ○ All feeding styles ○ Nearly all habitats ○ All have: ■ Notochord ■ Dorsal hollow nerve cord ■ Pharyngeal slits ■ Post-anal tail Vertebrates: Organized table of the Big 9: Phyla Habitat Mobility Dietary Strategy Diversity Platyhelminthes (moist) motile Predators or Fairly diverse terrestrial, parasites freshwater, marine Mollusca Marine, Motile and Predatory, filter Very diverse freshwater, sessile feeding, terrestrial detritivores Annelida Marine, Motile and Predatory, filter Fairly diverse freshwater, sessile feeding, terrestrial detritivores, sanguivores Nematoda Nearly all motile Half parasitic, Very diverse half free-living Arthropoda Marine, motile Every feeding Extremely freshwater, style diverse terrestrial Porifera (sponges) Mostly marine Sessile Filter feeding Very diverse Cnidaria (jellies, Mostly marine Motile and sessile Predatory or filter Very diverse corals, anemones) feeding Echinodermata Mostly marine Motile Predatory and Not very diverse filter feeding Chordata Everywhere Motile and sessile All feeding styles Fairly diverse
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