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Art History 1 Week of 3/29/16

by: CathrynBayes

Art History 1 Week of 3/29/16 ARTS 1710

Marketplace > Auburn University > Art > ARTS 1710 > Art History 1 Week of 3 29 16
GPA 3.3

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of the Neo-Assyrian material and the beginning of the Achaemenid/Persian Empire material.
Introduction to Art History I
Karen Sonik
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by CathrynBayes on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1710 at Auburn University taught by Karen Sonik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History I in Art at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Neo­Assyria  3/29/16: Neo­Assyrian Empire Cont.  Recall: a lamassu is a massive stone apotropaic (=protective) figure found at all the major  palace sites    Lamassu Examples  ● Lamassu from DurShurrukin​  (AKA Khorsabad): Sargon II (717­706 BCE),  alabaster/gypsum, 4.4 m height     ○ Substantially larger than previous lamassu. Features a turned head, bull body,  thicker proportions, and a differently shaped crown  ● Lamassu from Nineveh:​ the “Palace without Rival”, Sennacherib (704­681 BCE),  alabaster/gypsum    ○ Features unusual texture, stout body, and most noticeably 4 legs as opposed to 5  ● Development of Lamassu Style  ○ Scale  ■ Assurnarsirpal II     3.3 M    monoliths  ■ Sargon II         4.4 M     monoliths  ■ Essarhardon     5.7 M      multiple blocks  ○ Legs  ■ 9th­8th Century:  5 legs, lighter/dynamic proportions  ■ Sennacherib onwards: 4 legs, stouter      Orthostat Reliefs  ● Features  ○ Upright stone  slabs attached to wall or set into stone. In Neo­Assyrian palaces  these appear on interior walls.  ○ Inspired by Hittite orthostats which were erected on outside walls   ○ Painted black/blue/red/white  ○ Size ranges, each panel is the same size within a narrative; divided into two  registers; figural size is not representative of power  ● Historical Accuracy  ○ Depiction of enemies and camp set­ups/landscapes are generally accurate (ex:  Lachish)  ○ Role of King is sometimes exaggerated; always portrayed as protective figures  holding back the chaos (both human and supernatural) of the world  ○ BUT dead Assyrian soldiers are never portrayed, nor is Assyrian defeat  ● Themes  ○ Religious  ○ “Historical”/Life  ○ The Hunt  Examples  ● King, Genies and Sacred Tree: ​      ○ Image behind the throne of Assurnasirpal II (865 BCE) Nimrud, Northwest Palace,  Alabaster/gypsum  ○ A genie flanks either side of the scene; the King is represented by both middle  figures; sacred tree has a winged disk above it, which represents the god Assur                  ● Standard Inscription of Assurnasirpal II:     ○ Recounts Assurnasirpal II’s victories, such as the founding of the capital Nimrud,  New Palace construction; located between half­sized panels  ○ Writing is difficult to discern, but this is because the writing was primarily made for  posterity and the Gods, not for     ● Eagle Headed Genie​ :   ○ Assurnasirpal II (ca. 865­860 BCE) Nimrud (AKA Kalhu) NW Palace,  alabaster/gypsum      ● Bowman Against Turbaned Enemies  ○ Assurnasirpal II (ca. 865­860 BCE) Nimrud NW Palace, alabaster/gypsum. 1.05 (h)  by 2.16 (w) meters; features unusual body shaped  ○ I couldn’t find a picture online for this one, be on the lookout for her to post her  powerpoint the weekend before the test so you’re familiar with the image)    ● Beardless Assyrian in Chariot  ○ Assurnasirpal II (ca. 865­860 BCE) Nimrud NW Palace, alabaster/gypsum,  .94x2.16 meters  ○ Iconography of power: trampling scenes are common for showing total control over  the enemy      ● Siege of Lachish  ○ Sennacherib, Nineveh, “Palace without Rival”, (704­681 BCE), alabaster/gypsum  ○ Highly texturized large relief depicting Assyrian soldiers besieging Lachish  ○ Relatively historically accurate     ● King’s Judgement of Prisoners  ○ Sennacherib, Nineveh, (704­681 BCE), alabaster/gypsum  ○ Highly textured background; depicts the events after the siege  ○ Portrays the King as benevolent and rational  ○ Detailing on throne emphasizes iconography of king’s power; he’s literally seated  upon his enemies        Lion Hunt Reliefs  ● Assurnasirpal II's Lion Hunt Relief  ○ (ca. 865­860 BCE) from Nimrud, the Northwest Palace, alabaster/gypsum .87x2.23  m  ○ Trampling of enemy shows total control over the enemy; in this case, it is indicative  of the king’s mastery of the chaotic nature surrounding the structured society  ○ Very symmetrical composition with the King at the centerpoint of the piece    ● Assurnasirpal II Libation over Lion   ○ Nimrud Northwest Palace (865­860 BCE), alabaster/gypsum  ○ Depicts the ritual/religious aspect of the lion hunt. This sort of scene is usually the  conclusion to a series of reliefs depicting a hunt      ● Assurbanipal’s Dying Lions  ○ Nineveh, North Palace, 645 BCE Alabaster/gypsum  ○ Lion bodies are contorted to resemble humans and elicit pity              ● Assurbanipal Lion Hunt Relief  ○ Nineveh, N Palace ca 645 BCE alabaster/gypsum  ○ One of the most famous reliefs due to its complexity and well preserved condition  ○ Comprised of three registers, all featuring continuous motion aspects. Top register:  a lion is released from its cage and corralled by low level soldiers. While it may  seem as though three lions are present in this register, it has been proposed that it  is in fact a single lion being shown in motion. Middle register: the lion(s) is slain by  the king. While soldiers are permitted to aid the King, it is illegal for anyone else to  actually kill a lion due to the significant ritualistic aspect. Bottom register:  Libation/ritual to the gods at the conclusion of the hunt                                          The Achaemenid Empire  3/31/16  This is a lot of historical information, serves as a background for the artwork/artifacts we’ll evaluate next week  Basic Information  *Persians/Achaemenids are the same people, terms will be used interchanagably*   Time Periods  Neo­Assyrian Period                         911­612 BCE  Neo­Babylonian Period                     1000­539 BCE  Neo­Babylonian Empire        626­539 BCE  Achaemenid Empire              539­331 BCE    Kings (that we’re focusing on)  Cyrus the Great             559­530 BCE    Founder/Conquest of Media  Darius I                          521­486 BCE    Zenith of empire, Battle of Marathon  Xerxes                           486­465 BCE    Battle of Thermopylae, Salamis and  Plataea    The Birth of an Empire        ● 6th Century BCE​ :Cyrus the Great​  attacks the center of tMedia Empire and wins,  adding the entirety of their territory to the Achaemenids holdings; moves on to Lydia and  Sardis (modern day Turkey, Anatolia in antiquity); this is a massive territory/resource gain  ● Places capital aPasargadae   ● 539 BCE:​  Defeats Babylonian empire at Opis, gains control of this region as well  ○ To maintain control, Cyrus presented himself as a traditional Babylonian King;  releases prisoners in a show of benevolence and restores temples, showing mercy  in order to gain the public’s favor      ● 530­522 BCE​: Rise of Persia continues ​nambyses, Cyrus’ son/heir  ○ Defeats Egypt at Memphis but dies on the return trip 522 BCE (a very bad sign  according to superstitions of the time)  ○ Succeeded by Brother​ardiy​ OR usurper/imposteGaumata​ Gaumata is  murdered by nobles/Darius I    ● 521­486 BCE​:Darius seizes the throne, crea​ersepoliand expands ​usa  ○ Conquers​ areas from Northwest India all the way to the East, the largest area  we’ve studied thus far. Crushed revolts mercilessly, like the  Aegean/Ionian Greek  rebellion and attacked Scythians ca 512 BCE  ○ Consolidated​ areas his predecessors obtained by expanding royal roads, creating  a standard monetary system with standardized coinage, and reorganized political  system ofsatrap​(governors assigned areas to monitor)  ○ Built new capital at Persepolis and initiated major building programs at Susa, an  ancient city and religious center  ○ Battle of Maratho490 BCE Persian attempt to invade mainland Greece (Marathon  is relatively close to Athens); incredibly, the small Greek force repelled the large  Persian army  ● 468­465 BCE​:​erxes​ son of Darius I, comes to power and launches a series of  campaigns against the Greeks  Second Invasion of Greece  ■ Battle of Thermopylae 480: Persians defeat small Greek army (think of the  movie 300)  ■ Battle of Salamis 480 BCE: naval battle, Greek victory  ■ Battle of Plataea and Mycale 479 BCE: land battle, Greek defeat of Persia  ○ Repeatedly puts down Babylonian rebellions before being murdered during an  attempt at usurpation and replaced by his son, Artaxerxes (ruled 465­425 BCE)  ○ Empire eventually falls to Alexander the Great    Historical Sources  ● Herodotus (ca 484­425 BCE) Greek historian known as the “Father of History”, recorded  somewhat credible accounts of Persian history (known for believing and recording  mythological/fanciful events as fact)  ● Most recorded history of Achaemenids comes from the Greeks, whose accounts can be  exaggerated due to their negative relationship with the Persian empires  ● Babylonian chronicles  ● Biblical Sources  ● Persian art/archaeological sources 


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