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Module 4 Notes

by: Alex Clark

Module 4 Notes PSYC 1101

Alex Clark

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first couple of weeks of module 4
Elem Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, Module, Freud, mischel, emotion, personality
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Clark on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Elem Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Stage Theories People pass through stages as they age. Stage theorists always believe development is discontinuous. Continuous means we are making slow and gradual development over time. Discontinuous means instead of it being quantitative, we are going to fundamentally change over time like steps on stairs opposed to a ramp. Stages are invariant. They don’t vary. Stages go in same order always. They also think stages are universal; no matter where, who, what culture the person is, he/she will go through the same stages. Erikson’s follows the whole lifespan and tends to make sense with life. Piaget focuses on cognitive development. We think in totally different ways in different parts of our lives. He looked at egocentrism in babies. Piaget tends to underestimate children’s abilities. He said they’re egocentric until age 7, but research shows babies can be a little more competent that Piaget thought. Temperament is often referred to as the “building blocks of personality” because it is our innate traits that influence how we think, behave, and react to the environment from the moment we are born. Self-concept is our understanding of who we are which is though to start developing around 18 months. SEX Gender Differences in sexual desire/activity Men report about sex and fantasize about it more. Men are more likely to admit to masturbating, masturbating more frequently (3X as often as women). Men say they want more partners (average for women 5, average for me 18) There are biological differences. The testosterone may drive sexual desire (higher in men). There is a double standard: wanting/enjoying sex is seen as okay for men, not for women. There is a lot of overlap of sexual desire; women want sex almost just as much. Many factors affect social desire. Sexual Orientation What causes differences? We don’t know. A single cause is highly unlikely, so there is likely within-group variation. A good theory should explain all orientations. Theories include: genetics, prenatal hormonal exposure, environmental factors (but no one really has any good ideas of what these would be). Sexual orientation likely caused by combination of environmental and genetic factors. Experts do agree that it is not a choice. Trying to force change doesn’t work (conversion therapy can harm). Orientation can be fluid and may change, but most don’t have control over this, and most don’t end up changing. Can someone break their penis? YES, you can fracture it. You can damage the penile tissue Does the vagina actually get looser with more sex? No it can not, it’s a muscle that won’t get stretched out. But upon arousal, vagina muscles will loosen. As a woman gets older, vagina may get looser, and after delivery. Can you get pregnant the day after you have sex? Implantation will take 2 weeks but sperm can live in body for 72 hours. Emotion: James-Lang Theory: emotion comes from some sort of physical arousal. Experience physiological arousal (like heart rate rising, temperature goes up, etc), and then feel an emotion (anger). Body uses physiological response to interpret which emotion. Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory: experience physiological arousal (like increase in temp and heart rate) while also noticing the situation (seeing what is making you feel angry). This would cause you to label your emotion as anger. Body might react the same for a few different emotions, so physiological response doesn’t always interpret what emotion person is feeling. Facial-feedback hypothesis: facial expressions help influence our emotions. Sometimes way we hold our face can influence how we feel. Freud and Personality Parts of Personality Id: operates under immediate wants and needs for pleasure Ego: mediator, referee, balances between id and superego Superego: wants us to do the right thing, no matter what consequences Id and superego are often in conflict, so there must be some sort of way to manage the conflict, to deal with the urges that may not be socially acceptable. This is through the use of defense mechanisms which are unconscious; we don’t know we’re using them. It’s a way of engaging in self- deception. Psychosexual stages of development Jack Sprat: eat, lick  oral  overeating, smoking, nail-biting as adult Jack and Jill: latency Mary Mary: garden grow, silver bells, cockle shells, pretty maids  anal Three blind mice: phallic The idea behind trait theory is that your traits will be pretty consistent regardless of situation. This idea has been challenged by some like Mischel who says personality traits don’t have cross-situational consistency. People act differently in different situations. Situationalism says that behavior varies from one situation to the next, therefore discrediting trait theory’s significance in the psychological research up to that point. Personality theorists replied that people are consistent in some traits, but which traits are consistent varies across people. They also said traits will be more consistent when situational forces are weak (if there aren’t a lot of rules in a situation, your personality traits will shine through). Stronger rules in a situation, more the personality is kept in check. Also, they said individuals select situations to be in; this is influenced by personality traits. Mischel condluded there is SOME consistency; there are consistent patterns of variation across time and situation. EX: If situation is _______, then behavior is ________. Mischel’s marshmallow task: In original task, 2/3 of kids ate it Delay of gratification: not taking immediate reward, but waiting for more desirable reward instead. Longer delayed gratification at 4  more socially competent, able to handle frustration 10 years later. Higher SAT scores, better grades, better health and finances0


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