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PSY 244 Exam 4 notes

by: Jordyn

PSY 244 Exam 4 notes PSY 244

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Devel Psych Infancy - Chldhd
C. Durbin
Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordyn on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 244 at Michigan State University taught by C. Durbin in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Devel Psych Infancy - Chldhd in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Conceptions of self  The self  Self=a conceptual system of ones thoughts and attitudes about oneself  Can include thoughts about ones own physical being, social roles, and relationships and “spiritual” or internal characteristics  Even young infants seem to experience a sense of mastery and control when they can make a mobile do their bidding by moving their arm  Development of conceptions of self  Children’s sense of self  Emerges in the early years of life  Continues to develop into adulthood  Becomes more complex as the individuals emotional and cognitive development deepens  Is enhanced when adults provide descriptive information about the child  The self in infancy  Infants have a rudimentary sense of self in the first months of life, as evidence by their control of objects outside of themselves  Their sense of self becomes more distinct at about 8 months of age when they respond to separation from primary caregivers with separation distress  Development of conceptions of self in infancy  By 18 to 20 months of age o Ruge test—put something on nose and look in mirror and wipe it of o Many children can look in to a mirror and realize that the image they see there is themselves  By 2 years of age o Children exhibit embarrassment and shame o Self-assertive behavior and use of language also indicate self-awareness  Development of conceptions of self in infancy  By 30 months of age o Almost all children recognize their own photograph  At age 3 to 4 o Children understand themselves in terms of concrete, observable characteristics related to physical attributes, physical activities and abilities and psychological traits o Self-evaluations during the preschool years are unrealistically positive  In elementary school  Children begin to refine their conceptions of self in part because they increasingly engage in social comparison  Self-concepts are increasingly based on their relationships with others especially peers, and others evaluations of them, making them vulnerable to low self esteem  Development of conceptions of self in middle childhood  By middle to late elementary school  Development of conceptions of self in adolescence  Adolescence begin to think of themselves in terms of abstract characteristics that encompass a variety of concrete characteristics and behaviors  They can also conceive of themselves in terms of a variety of selves, depending on context  Early adolescence o Thinking about self is characterized by several forms of egocentrism  Personal fable  Imaginary audience  Middle teen years o Adolescence often begin to agonize over the contradictions in their behavior and characteristics o Most still do not have the cognitive skills needed to integrate their recognition of these contradictions into a coherent conception of self  Development of conceptions of self in adolescence  Adolescents in their middle teens are better than younger adolescents at identifying contradictions in themselves  Most still do not have the cognitive skills needed to integrate their recognition of these contradictions into a coherent conception of self  Development of Conceptions of Self in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood  In late adolescence o Individuals conception of self becomes more integrated and less determined by what others think o Other adolescents conceptions of self also frequently reflect internalized personal values, beliefs and standards  Narrative identity = a story of the self (as agent, actor) with beginning, middle and future  Erikson’s theory of identity formation  Erik Erikson: identity verses identity confusion crises o Resolution of many issues is the chief developmental task in adolescence o Successful resolution of this crisis results in identity achievement o During late adolescence, re-examination of ones value system is common. Often the outcome is either renewed commitment to previously held benefits or total rejection of them  Erikson’s views: identity versus identity confusion  Adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or experiences one of several negative outcomes o Identity confusion: incomplete sense of self o Identity foreclosure: prematurely committing to an identity without adequate consideration of alternatives o Negative identity: choosing identity opposite to the values of the values of important others  Erikson’s views  Erikson argued for the importance of a psychosocial moratorium o Involves a time-out period during which the adolescent is not expected to take on adult roles and can pursue activities that lead to self-discovery o Is only possible in some cultures and only to the more privileged classes  Marcia’s identity  Adolescents and young adults who have attained identity-achievement status are socially more mature and higher in achievement motivation than their peers  Adolescents and young adults in identity-difusion and moratorium statuses tend to move into identity-achievement status, whereas those in a foreclosed state often remain there  Adolescents are more likely to have a foreclosed identity status if their parents are overly protective or employ a cold and controlling parenting style (ex: authoritarian)  Ethnic identity  Refers to the individuals sense of belonging to an ethnic group  Includes the degree to which children associate their thinking, perceptions, feelings and behavior with membership in that ethnic group  Components of ethnic identity in childhood  Ethnic knowledge  Ethnic self-identification  Ethnic constancy  Ethnic-role behaviors  Ethnic feelings and preferences  Examples of components of ethnic identity in preschool and early school years   Development of ethnic identity  Ethnic identity develops gradually during childhood and is not universal  By the early school years, ethic-minority children: o Know the common characteristics of their ethnic group o Start to have feelings about being members of the group o May have begum to form ethnically based preferences  Between the ages f 5 and 8 children; o Tend to identify themselves with their ethic group o Begin to understand their ethnicity as unchanging (after identification)  Ethnic identity in adolescence  Ethnic identity becomes more central in adolescence  Ethnic-minority youth o Face special challenges when they become aware of discrimination o May experience special peer pressures and higher rate of foreclosure o May also experience additional difficulties when the values of their ethnic group and those of the dominant culture clash o Interventions can help minority youth to integrate counter stereotypic goals and characteristics into their identity  Sexual orientation  A persons preference in regard to males or females as objects of erotic feelings  Core component of adolescent identity  Dealing with new feelings of sexuality is difficult for many adolescents  Establishing a sexual identity is much harder for some adolescents than for others  Origins of sexual identity  Timing o Puberty is the most likely time for youth to begin experiencing feelings of sexual attraction to others  Biology and environment o Most current theorist believe that feelings of sexual attraction to others are based primary on biology factors  Sexual identity in sexual minority  Sexual-minority youth: include young people who experience same-sex attractions and for whom the question of personal sexual identity is often confusing and painful  Disclose this information to others (ex: “coming out”) and are doing so at earlier ages than in previous cohorts  Involve an estimated 2-4% of high school students in the US  The process of coming out  First recognition  Test and exploration  Identity acceptance  Identity integration  Ages of identity milestones for gay/bisexual male youth in savin-william’s (1998) study (all are gay youth who have acknowledged their sexual-minority identity)   Consequences of coming out  Sexual minority youth o Do not typically disclose their same-sex preferences to peers of siblings until about 16 ½ to 19 years of age o Do not tell their parents until a year or two later, if at all o Are often insulted or threatened by relatives or not accepted by heterosexual peers  Self-esteem  What is self-esteem? o Ones overall evaluation of the worth of the self and the feelings that this evaluation engenders o Related to how satisfied people are with their lives o Starts to develop early and is afected by a variety of factors throughout life  Sources of self-esteem  Interaction of nature and nurture, including the sociocultural context  Heredity  Gender  Individual diferences  Others’ contributions to self-esteem  Children begin to become concerned about winning their parents love and approval at about age 2  Accepting parents who use supportive yet, firm, child rearing practices tend to have children with positive self-esteem  Parents who reject their children for unacceptable behavior are likely to instill their children with a sense of worthlessness  Factors contributing to children’s positive self esteem  Competence in domains of importanceself-esteemapproval support  Others contributions to self-esteem  Over the course of childhood, self-esteem is increasingly afective  By peer acceptance  By internalized standards as children approach adolescence  School and neighborhood effects  A decline in self-esteem is associated with the transition from elementary to junior high school  Living in poverty in an urban environment is associated with lower self-esteem among adolescents in the United States  Self-esteem in minority children  European American and African American o Although young European American children tend to have higher self-esteem than their African American peers, the trend reverses slightly after age 10  Latino and other minority children o Less is known about the self-esteem of Latino and other minority children  Culture and self-esteem  Asian and western cultures  Self-esteem scores tend to be lower in china, japan, and Korea than in many Western nations  There appear to be fundamental diferences between Asian and Western cultures that afect the meaning of self-esteem Lecture 12  The family  Family dynamics  The role of parental socialization  Mothers, fathers and siblings  Changes in families in the united states  Maternal employment and child care  Functions of families  To ensure the survival of ofspring  To provide children means to acquire the skills to be economically productive as adults  To provide cultural training  Then and now!  Over the past 7 decades there is a rise in age of first marriage  Family dynamics  How the family operates as a whole determines to a great extent how well a family fulfills its basic child-rearing functions  Family dynamics  Family members influence one another directly and indirectly  Family functioning is influenced by the social support the family receives from the sociocultural  Family dynamics change as children reach diferent ages family dynamics may also be altered by gradual and abrupt changes in the parents and in the relationships of other family members  Systematic perspective on families  Family members influence one another directly and indirectly  Family functioning is influenced by the social support the family receives from the sociocultural context  Family dynamics change as children reach diferent ages  Family dynamics may also be altered by gradual and abrupt changes in the parents and in the relationships of other family members  Adolescents and parents  Adolescents and their parents have fairly frequent disagreements but generally argue over mundane matters  A minority of families experience hotter and deeper conflicts, often involving sex, drugs and children’s choice of friends  Research has shown that there is actually little increase in reported child-parent conflicts between grades 6 and 10  Socialization: process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate to their present and future roles in their particular culture  The role of parental socialization  Parents can influence their children’s development through socialization in at least three diferent ways o As direct instructors o As indirect socializers o As providers and controllers of opportunities  Parenting styles and practices  Parenting styles are parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional climate of parent- child interactions  Two important dimensions of parenting style: o The degree of parental warmth, support and acceptance verses parental rejection and nonresponsiveness o The degree of parental control and demandingness  Baumrind proposed 4 styles of parenting related to these dimensions of support and control o Authoritative o Authoritarian o Permissive o Rejecting-neglecting  Baumrind’s parenting styles  Style Typical parent characteristics Typical child characteristics Authoritarian (high inNonresponsive to their children’s needsLow in social and academic demandingness and competence in childhood and low in supportiveness)nforce their demands though the adolescence exercise of parental power and the use of threats and punishment As children they tend to be unhappy and unfriendly, with boys afected more Are oriented toward obedience and negatively than girls in early childhood authority Expect their children to comply without question or explanation Style Typical parent characteristics Typical child characteristics Authoritative (high inSet clear standards and limits for their Competent demandingness and children and are firm about enforcing high in them Self-assured supportiveness) Allow their children considerable Popular autonomy within those limits Able to control their own behavior Are attentive and responsive to their children’s concerns and needs, and Low in antisocial behaviors in childhood respect and consider their child’s perspective In adolescence: high in social and  Will listen to why you took thecademic competence and positive behavior, low in problem behavior car but sorry you’re still grounded Style Typical parent characteristics Typical child characteristics Permissive (low in Responsiveness to their children needsAs children, they tend to be impulsive, demandingness and lacking in self control and low in school high in Do not require that their children achievement supportiveness) regulate themselves or act in appropriate or mature ways As adolescents, they engage in more school misconduct and drug use than do those with authoritative parents Style Typical parent characteristics Typical child characteristics Rejecting-neglecting Do not set limits for or monitor their Infants and toddlers tend to have (low in children’s behavior attachment problems demandingness and low in supportivenessA)re not supportive of them, and As children, they have poor peer sometimes are rejecting or neglectful relationships Tend to be focused on their own needs Adolescents tend to show antisocial rather than their children’s behavior, poor self-regulation, internalizing problems, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, and low academic and social competence  Baumrind is almost all about white middle class people  Ethnic and cultural influences on parenting  Efects of diferent parenting styles and practices vary as a function of ethnic or racial groups o African American families—authoritarian o European American families o Authoritarian child-rearing practices seem to be associated with less negative consequences in Chinese and first-generation Chinese American families o Diferent patterns of harsh discipline and acceptance were found between English-speaking Mexican American families and acculturated Spanish-speaking Mexican American families  Parenting styles and ethnicity  Particular parenting styles and practices may have diferent meanings o Authoritarian child-rearing practices seem to be associated with less negative consequences in Chinese and first-generation Chinese American families than in European American families o Diferent patterns of harsh discipline and acceptance were found between English-speaking Mexican American families and acculturated Spanish-speaking Mexican American families  The child as an influence on parenting  Among the strongest influences on parents’ parenting styles are the characteristics of their children  Attractiveness  Children’s physical appearance influences the way their parents respond to them o Unattractive infants may experience somewhat diferent parenting than attractive infants, and this pattern continues across development o The parental-investment theory (chapter 9) might provide one explanation of this influence Quiz 6 1. Which of the following refers to prematurely committing to an identity without fully considering all of one’s options? a. Identity confusion b. Multiple identities c. Identity foreclosure d. Negative identity 2. True/False. Most sexual minority youth come out to their parents before disclosing to peers or siblings. 3. Socialization refers to a. Processes by which children acquire skills, values, and knowledge appropriate to their present and future roles in their culture b. Mechanisms that encourage children to develop appropriate abilities at interacting socially with their peers c. The methods parents use to encourage the development of moral behavior in their ofspring d. the parts of the attachment system that relate to internal working models of others, and which help children to develop trusting relationships with new people 4. Name one of the 2 main dimensions that can be used to describe parenting styles. Warmth and control  A Chinese experiment  The peoples republic of china announced in 1979 a limit of one child per family in urban population o China now ends its one child policy nearly four decades after it was first adopted  The program represented a natural experiment to study how the structure of the family afects children’s development  Recent finding indicate virtually no diferences between “onlies” and other children in regard to social behavior and personality  The marital relationship  Family system models: the couple unit is the key determinant of the health of other systems in the family (ex: parent-child, sibling, individual functioning) o Supported by correlational research  Marriage in social context o Demographic changes  Divorce rates have been declining somewhat since the 80s  Divorce rate is not increasing, maybe because people are getting married later  Over the past 20 years, increase in age at first marriage (associated with better outcomes){from 21/23 in 1970s to 26/28 in 2009}  Slightly less than ½ of all marriages end in divorce o Marital satisfaction declines significantly over the first decade, more slowly thereafter; only begins to increase again after children leave the home  Having a child will not include your relationship quality  Interpersonal models of marriage  Focus on the behavioral interactions and cognitions/appraisals about the relationship in couples  Typically studied by observing couples engaging in conflict or problem-solving discussions  Major findings for martially distressed (vs satisfied) couples: o Greater negative reactivity and negative reciprocity o Poor communication predicts poor marital outcomes and premarital interventions that emphasize communication have long-term benefits  Martially distressed couples  Negative attributions about the spouse and his/her behavior  Ratio of positive to negative afect during interactions is linked to marital distress  All unhappy marriages are not homogeneous (alike) o Common types: conflictual, disengaged  Most common conflict areas: money, intimacy, parenting  Marital distress is associated with psychopathology, especially substance abuse and depression  Couples who are violent are even more extreme in their levels of anger, negativity and contempt  Contextual influences on marital quality  Having children in association with longer marital stability, but decreases in quality (especially when children are young) o Supportive co-parenting & whether the pregnancy was planned are important mediators  Economic stress is predictor of marital dissatisfaction  Mate availability and employment influence the development and course of marriage especially in low income populations  Children’s behavior and temperaments  Diferences in children’s behavior with their parents also afect parenting, and can be due to a number of reasons o Genetic factors related to temperament o Patterson’s coercive processes model  Bidirectionality of parent-child interactions  Children elicit positive and negative behaviors from parents AND  Children filter and react to parental behaviors based on their own views of these behaviors   Socioeconomic influences on parenting  Parents with low SES o More likely than higher SES parents to use an authoritarian and punitive child-rearing style  Mothers with higher SES o More likely to use a style that is accepting and democratic and they use more language with their children  Some SES diferences in parenting are related to diferences in parental beliefs and values o Lower SES parents often value conformity in their children o Higher SES parents are more likely to want their children to become self-directed and autonomous o Education may also be an important aspect of SES associated with diferences in parental values  SES diferences in parenting styles and practices may partly reflect diferences in the environments in which families live o An authoritarian style may be adaptive in some cases to protect children in unsafe living conditions o Terrell Owens—only allowed to leave the house to go to church and to go to school  Differences in fathers and mothers’ interactions with their children  Fathers tend to participate less than mothers in child care and to interact with their children diferently  In industrialized western cultures, fathers spend more time playing with their children and choose more physically active games than mothers do  Fathers tend to engage in more physical play with their children than do mothers  Sibling relationships  Siblings have both positive and negative efects on development and on family functioning o Most children do not have very negative reactions to the arrival of a new sib o Relationships improve in early and middle childhood, siblings get along better if they are temperamentally similar, unless both have difficult o Young children are more likely than older children to respond poorly when an infant sibling receives more attention than they themselves do  Changes in families in the united states  Age of first marriage has gone up  Parental work outside home  Age at birth of first child  Divorce rate  Number of out of wedlock births  Rate of one parent and step fathers  Adolescents as parents  Incidence o Childbearing in adolescence, although now substantially below the rate in the 1960s, is still higher in the US than in any other industrialized country  22 births per 1,000 are to females 15-17 years of age  92% of births in this age group are to unmarried mothers  Factors that reduce the risk of adolescent childbearing o Living with both biological parents o Being involved in school activities and religious organizations  Adolescent parenting is associated with negative consequences for both the mother and the child  Motherhood curtails the adolescent mother’s opportunities for education, career development, and normal peer relationships  Children of younger mothers are more likely to exhibit behavior problems and cognitive delays in comparison to older mothers  Not all children born to adolescent mothers are destined for poor developmental outcomes  Teenage mothers who have more knowledge about child development and parenting tend to have children who display fewer problems  Children of adolescent mothers also have better outcomes if they have a strong attachment to the biological father or stepfather  Birth rates for married women by age of the mother  Older parents  Within limits, having children at a later age has advantages o More financial resources, fewer children, and are more likely to have planned births o More responsive, afectionate and stimulating with their infants o Less likely to engages in physically exciting activities with their children o On average, older fathers engage in more verbal interactions with their preschool-aged children than do younger fathers  Divorce  About divorce  In 2012, 5.4 million US children lived with only their divorced mother  1.3 million children lived only with their divorced fathers  Several million others lived in reconstructed families  About 40% of remarriages involving children end in divorce in 10 years o Efects of divorce and remarriage on children are of great concern  The potential impact of divorce  Children of divorce are at greater risk for a variety of short- and long-term psychological, behavior, academic and relationship problems than are those who live with both biological parents BUT  Most children whose parents divorce do not sufer significant, enduring problems as a consequence  Effects of marital quality on child outcomes  Marital satisfaction and divorce are associated with child outcomes, but…  Efects of divorce are mediated by the health of the rearing environment after the divorce o May be moderated by child temperament  Efect of marital conflict are small, but are much larger for witnessing partner aggression/domestic violence o May be moderated by child age and gender  Factors affecting the impact of divorce  Level of parental conflict prior to, during, and after a divorce  Stress experienced by the custodial parent and children in the new family arrangement  Age of the child  Contact with noncustodial parent  Long standing characteristics of child  Divorced parents who are single often have to deal with increased levels of stress which can afect the quality of their parenting  An alternative to divorce: ongoing marital conflict  Sometimes the argument is advanced that divorce should be harder to obtain because to obtain because of the negative efects it has on children  Because ongoing marital conflict poses a variety of risks for children, the idea of staying married “for the sake of the children” may be a questionable one  Stepparenting  In 2009, 5.6 million children in the US were living with a stepparent  The entry of a stepparent into the family is often a very threatening event for children o Usually worse for older children—you’re not my real dad  Factors affecting children’s adjustment in stepfamilies  Stepfathers o Very young children tend to accept stepfathers more easily than older children and adolescents o Conflict between stepfathers and stepchildren tends to be greater than that between fathers and biological ofspring o Children with stepfathers tend to have higher rates of depression, withdrawal and disruptive behaviors than do children in intact families  Stepmothers o Stepmothers generally have more difficulty with their stepchildren than do stepfathers  Adolescents o Adolescents adjustment difers little from than of intact families if the stepfather has been parent of the family for many years and if the family contains only one parents children o In complex step families which contain stepsiblings or half siblings adolescents exhibit more acting-out behaviors  Lesbian and gay parents  Incidence it is likely that between 1 and 5 million children have lesbian or gay parents  As in families with heterosexual parents, the adjustment of children with lesbian and gay parents seems to depend on family dynamics  A growing body of research suggests that the development of children of gat parents difers little, if at all, from that of children of heterosexual parents  The effects of childcare  Child care provided in centers has increased sharply in recent years  In 2010, 48% of children 4 years old or younger with employed mothers were cared for primarily by a parent or another relative; nearly 24% were mostly in center based child care; and 13.5% were cared for by a nonrelative in a home environment  In 2011, among children in families in poverty, 18% were in center-based care as their primary arrangement  In contrast, more children in families at or above the poverty line were in center-based care  Attachment and the parent-child relationship  Some early evidence suggested that nonparental child care interfered with attachment to the parents  A variety of subsequent studies, however, reported no overall evidence that children in child care are less securely attached to their mothers than other children  Cognitive and language development  Overall, the NICHD study found: o Number of hours in child care did not correlate with cognitive or language development when demographic variables were taken into account o Child care may have positive efects on cognitive and that these are larger for higher- quality centers  National Association for the Education of Young Children: Quality of Child Care  Standards for good child care programs o Caring, sensitive, available and cooperative staf members o Age appropriate activities and equipment o Good staf relations with the community  Minimum standards o Age appropriate child-to-caregiver ratio o Maximum group size of six for infants and toddlers, eight for 2-year-olds and fourteen for 3- year-olds o Formal training for caregivers Lecture 13  Peer relationships  What is special about peer relationships?  Friendships  Peers in groups  Status in the peer group  The role of parents in children peer relationships  What is special about peer relationships  Piaget, Vugotsky, and others argued that peer relationships provide a unique context for cognitive, social and emotional development  The equality, reciprocity, cooperation and intimacy that can develop in peer relationships enhance children’s reasoning ability and their concern for others  Both disagreement and cooperation within the context of peer relationships have been emphasized by theorists as important contributions to children’s cognitive development  Friendships  Friendships are intimate, reciprocated positive relationships between people  The degree to which the conditions of friendship become evident in peer interactions increases with age during childhood  Early peer interactions and friendships  By or before age 2 o Some researches have argued that children can have friends  Many 12-18 month-olds o Children seem to select and prefer some children over others  Starting at around 20 months of age o Children also increasingly initiate more interactions with some children than with others  By age 2 o Children begin to develop skills that allow greater complexity in their social interactions  By age 3 or 4 o Children can make and maintain friendships with peers  By age 3 to 7 o Children can have “best friends” that are stable over at least several months’ time  Peer interactions and friendships  Between ages 6 and 8 o Children define friendship primarily on the basis of actual activities and view friends in terms of rewards and costs  Between the early school years and adolescence o Children increasingly experience and define their friendships in terms of mutual linking, closeness and loyalty  Adolescence o More than younger children, adolescents use friendships as a context for self-exploration and working out personal problems  Developmental changes  Some researches attribute developmental changes in friendship to advances in the ability to take others perspectives (Cognitive change enables social development)  Other researches argue that the age-related changes in children’s conceptions of friendship reflect diferences in how children think and express their ideas rather than in how they view friendships. (cognitive changes helps you talk about social development, but it does not cause it)  Dimensions on which elementary school children often evaluate their friendships Dimension Indicators Validation and caring Makes me feel good abut my ideas. Tells me I’m good at things Conflict resolution Make up easily when we have a fight. Talk about how to get over being mad. Conflict and betrayal Argue a lot. Don’t listen to me Help and guidance Help each other with schoolwork a lot. Loan each other things all the time Companionship and Always sit together at lunch. recreation Do fun things together a lot Intimate exchange Always tell each other our problems. Tell each other secrets  Functions and friendships  Friends can provide a source of emotional support and security o Particularly important during difficult transition periods o Serves as a bufer against unpleasant events o Linked to decreases in adjustment problems when reciprocated o During the elementary school years, the willingness to lend support and help, including with homework, becomes a dimension of friendship  Support and validation  Adolescents o Report friends are more important confidants and providers of support than are parents o In highly stressful situation however, support from adults may be more important for children’s well being than support from friends o Adolescent friends are more likely to share confidences with one another than are younger friends  Age trends in reports of self-disclosure to parents and peers   Social and cognitive skills  Friendships o Provide context for development of social skills and knowledge needed to form positive relationships with other people o Promote cognitive skills and enhance performance on creative tasks o Provide opportunities to get constructive feedback about their behavior and ideas  Gender differences  By late elementary school o Girls feel that their friendships are more intimate and provide more validation, care and guidance than do boys o Girls are more likely to co-ruminate with close friends; boys are less socially anxious o Boys’ and girls’ friendships are similar in terms of companionship and recreational opportunities  The possible long-term benefits of friendships  In elementary school, children who have antisocial and aggressive friends tend to exhibit antisocial and aggressive tendencies themselves o So…so aggressive friends actually cause children and adolescents to behave aggressively or do aggressive children gravitate toward one another (selection)?  Preadolescence o Reciprocated best friend relates not only to positive social outcomes in middle childhood, but also to self-perceived competence and adjustment in adulthood o However, because of the correlational nature of the research a casual relationship is difficult to establish  Possible costs of friendships  The extent to which friends’ use of drugs and alcohol may put an adolescent at risk seems to depend, in part, on many variables: o Nature of parent-child relationship o Selection of friends with similar interests and genetic make-up o Mutual reinforcement though peer socialization o Peers can encourage youths to use alcohol, but it also the case that youths who are prone to drinking may seek out peers who are similarly inclined  Choice of friends  Preschool friends o Proximity is the key in selection o Similarity in age o Preference for same-sex friends emerges o Peers of the same race (to lesser degree)  By age 7 o Children tend to like peers who are similar to themselves in their cognitive maturity of their play and in their aggressive behavior  Fourth to eight grade o Friends are more similar than nonfrineds in prosocial behaviors, antisocial behavior, peer acceptance and academic motivation  Adolescence o Friends tend to have similar interests, attitudes and behavior  Culture and peer experience  Cultures difer in terms of the total number of hours tat children typically spend with peers  In many unschooled, nonindustrial populations o Boys tend to spend more time with peers than girls do, likely because they are less closely monitored and are allowed greater freedom to be away from home  European American, African American and European adolescents o Spend much more time with peers, especially other-gender peers, than Asian adolescents do  The nature of young children’s groups  Preschool groups o By the time children are preschool age, there is a clear dominance hierarchy among peer group members  Middle childhood groups o By the middle childhood, status in peer groups involves more than dominance and children become very concerned about their peer groups status  Cliques and social networks in middle childhood and early adolescence  Cliques are friendship groups that children voluntarily form or join themselves o In middle childhood, cliques tend to include 3 to 9 children who are usually of the same sex and race o By age 11, much of children’s social interactions occur within the clique o During the school years, children who are central to the peer group are likely to be popular, athletic, cooperative, and seen as leaders and studious relative to other peers  Cliques and social networks in adolescents  Cliques o From ages 11 to 18, there is an increase in the number of adolescents who have ties to many cliques and an increase in the stability of cliques o During early and middle adolescence, children place high value on being in a popular group and in conforming to the groups norms regarding dress and behavior o Children and adolescence in cliques tend to spend a lot of time together and often dress similarly o With increasing age, adolescence are more autonomous and tend to look more to individual relationships than to group relationships  Crowds o Although older adolescents seem to be less tied to cliques, they still often belong to crowds (i.e. groups of adolescents who have similar stereotyped reputations)  Boys and girls in cliques and crowds  Gender diferences o Adolescent girls tend to be more integrated into cliques o Adolescent boys have a greater diversity of friends  Dyadic dating o Starting in seventh grade, girls and boys tend to associate with one another more and dyadic dating relationships become increasingly common o By high school, cliques of friends often include adolescents of both sexes  Romantic relationships  In the US, 25% of 12-year-olds and 70% of 18-year-olds report having a romantic relationship in the past 18 months  Between 14 and 18 years, adolescents tend to balance time they spend with romantic partners and friends  By young adulthood, time with romantic partners increases to the point that it is at the expense of involvement with friends and crowds  Selection criteria o Young adolescents tend to select partners that bring them status o Older adolescents are more likely to select partners based on compatibility and characteristics that enhance intimacy  Status in the peer group  Measurement of peer status  Characteristics associated with sociometric status  Stability of sociometric status  Cross-cultural similarities and diferences in factors related to peer status  Peer status as a predictor of risk  Measurement of peer status  Sociometric status o Ask children to rate how much they like or dislike each other of their classmates to nominate some of those whom they like the most or least, or with whom they do or do not like to play o Information form these procedures is used to calculate children’s sociometric status o This measures the degree to which children are liked of disliked by their peers as a group  Characteristics associated with sociometric status  Characteristics of peer status o Attractiveness o Athletic ability o Social behavior o Personality o Cognitions about self and others o Status of the child’s friends  Common sociometric categories CATEGORY DESCRIPTION Popular Children who receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations Rejected Children who receive many negative nominations and few positive nominations Neglected Children who are low in social impact (i.e., they receive few positive or negative nominations) These children are not especially liked or disliked by peers; they simply go unnoticed. Average Children are designated as average if they receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations. Controversial Children who receive many positive and many negative nominations. They are noticed by peers and are liked by quite a few children and disliked by quite a few others.  Popular children  Characteristics of popular children o Tend to be skilled at initiating interactions with peers and at maintaining positive relationships o Tend to be cooperative, friendly, sociable, and sensitive to others o Are not prone to intense negative emotions and regulate o Tend to be less aggressive than average children  Diferentiation between children who are popular in terms of sociometric measures and those who are perceived by peers as being popular with others o Individuals with high status in the peer group are often labeled “popular” by peers, but tend to be above average in aggression  Relationship between perceived popularity and aggression is especially high in adolescence o Particularly high-status girls may use relational aggression to hurt others by spreading rumors or withholding friendship  Rejected children  In a category of sociometric status that refers to children or adoelscents who are liked by few peers and disliked by many peers  Fall into categories o Aggressive-rejected o Withdrawn-rejected  Aggressive-rejected children  Aggressive-rejected children o Are especially prone to hostile and threatening physical behavior  About 40% to 50% of rejected children tend to be aggressive  When they are angry or want their own way, many rejected children also engage in relational aggression  Aggressive behavior often underlies rejection by peers o However, not all aggressive peers are rejected; some develop a network of aggressive friends  Withdrawn-rejected children  Withdrawn-rejected children o Socially withdrawn, warm and often timid o Make up about 10-25% of the rejected category  Not all socially withdrawn children are rejected or socially excluded o Withdrawn behavior combined with negative actions or emotions is correlated with rejection, although this pattern may change with age  Social cognition and social rejection  Rejected children, particularly those who are aggressive: o Tend to difer from more popular children in their social motives and their processing of information in social settings o More likely to attribute hostile motives to others in negative social situations o Have more difficulty than other children in finding constructive solutions to difficult social situations  Neglected children  Involves a category of sociometric status that refers to children or adolescents who are infrequently mentioned as liked of disliked  Display relatively few behaviors that difer greatly from those of many other children  Appear to be neglected primarily because they are not noticed  Controversial children  Involve a category of sociometric status that refers to children or adolescents who are liked by quite a few  Tend to have characteristics of both popular and unpopular children  Viewed by some peers as arrogant and snobbish  Fostering children’s peer acceptance  Some social skills training programs teach children: o To pay attention to what is going on in a group of peers o To rehearse skills related to participating with peers o To cooperate o To communicate in positive ways  Stability of sociometric status  Over relatively short time periods, children who are popular or rejected tend to remain so, whereas those who are neglected or controversial tend to change their status  Sociometric stability for rejected children is generally higher than for popular, neglected or controversial children, and may increase with the age of the child  Developmental trends  Researches have noted three patterns of findings: 1. The major predictors of popularity do not seem to change substantially with age (ex: children whoa re selected as popular are viewed as helpful, friendly and considerate across age levels) 2. Although aggression is a frequent predictor of rejection in childhood, overy aggression appears to play a less important role in peer rejection in adolescence 3. Withdrawn behavior seems to become a more important predictor of peer rejection with increasing age in childhood  Cross-cultural similarities and differences  Although most of the research on peer status has been done in the US similar findings have been obtained in other countries  Research has also demonstrated certain cultural diferences in the characteristics associated with children’s sociometric status  Children who are well liked tend to have similar characteristics in many cultures, as do children who are rejected by their peers  Problems with adjustment  Internalizing problems o Peer rejection may also be associated with internally expressed problems such as loneliness, depressive, withdrawn behavior, and obsessive, compulsive behavior  Research findings rd o Boys and girls who were assessed as rejected in 3 grade were at risk for developing internalizing problems years later o Children in western cultures who are very withdrawn, but nonaggressive with peers, were also at risk for internalizing problems  Socially withdrawn children o Children especially males, who are socially withdrawn with familiar peers may difer in important ways from their peers even in adulthood o Men who were withdrawn children have been observed to have less stable careers and marriages than their peers o Females who were withdrawn as girls have been characterized as less likely than other women ro have careers outside the home  Rejection and victimization o Rejected children who are victimized or who are targets of their peers’ aggressive and demeaning bhevaior, amy be especially at risk for loneliness and other internalizing behavior o Victimized children tend to be aggressive, withdrawn and anxious  The role of parents in children’s peer relationships  Relationships between attachment and competence with peers  Quality of ongoing parent-child interactions and peer relationships  Parental beliefs  Gatekeeping and coaching  Family stress and children’s social competence  Security of the parent-child relationship is linked with quality of peer relationships  Early and continuing parent-child attachment has an efect on the quality of the child’s overall social behavior  Characteristics of children, such as sociability, influence both the quality of attachments and the quality of relationships with peers  Quality of parent-child interactions and peer relationships  Parent–child interactions are associated with peer relationships in ways similar to attachment patterns o Mothers of popular children are more likely than mothers of less popular children to discuss feelings with their children and to use control, positive verbalizations, reasoning and explanations o Fathers’ parenting practices in general appear to be somewhat less closely related to children social competence and sociometric status  Parental beliefs and behaviors  Characteristics of parents of children who are socially competent with peers o Parents believe that they should play an active role in teaching their children social skills o They provide opportunities for peer interactions  Gatekeeping, coaching and modeling  Preschoolers whose parents arrange and oversee opportunities for them to interact peers: o Tend to be more positive and social with peers—play date o Have more companions—if their parents are not overly controlling during the interactions o Parents may contribute to their children’s development of social competence by arranging opportunities for their children to interact with peers  Coaching o Preschool children tend to be more popular if their parents efectively coach them in how to deal with unfamiliar peers  Modeling o Parents also influence their children’s competence with peers by modeling socially competent and incompetent behaviors Lecture 14  Moral development  Moral judgment  The early development of conscience  Prosocial behavior  Antisocial behavior  Troubling questions  Columbine—extreme cases can help understand and prevent future cases  Moral judgment  Core concepts o Reasoning behind a behavior is critical for determining whether a given behavior is moral or immoral o Changes in moral reasoning from the basis of moral development  Piagets theory of moral judgment  In the moral judgment of the child, Piaget described how children’s moral reasoning changes o From rigid acceptance of the dictates and rules of authorities  to an appreciation that moral rules are a modifiable product of social interaction  Piagets method initially involved observing children’s games o He also conducted open-ended interviews with children in which they were presented with stories involving children’s behavior and asked to make judgments as to which a child was naughtier  Piagets theory of moral judgment o Morality of constraint o Transition period o Autonomous morality  Morality constraint  Characterized the moral reasoning of children who have not yet reached the cognitive stage of concrete operations  Suggests that what determines whether an action determines whether an action is good or bad is the consequence of the action not the motive behind it  The transitional period  From about age 7 or 8 to age 10  Children learn that rules can be constructed by the group though increased peer interaction  Children increasingly learn to take one another’s perspective, thereby becoming more autonomous in their thinking about moral issues  Piagets’ theory of moral judgment  Autonomous morality: from about age 11 to 12 o Moral relativism emerges, with all normal children reaching this stage  Children understand o Rules can be change if a group agrees to do so o Fairness and equality among people are considered important factors in constructing rules o Individuals’ motives are considered when evaluating crimes  Evaluation of piagets theory  Although piagets general view or moral development has been supported by empirical research, some aspects have not held up well to scrutiny  For example, young children can sometimes consider intentions and disregard adults’ views when judging the morality of some actions, such as hurting others  Kohlberg’s theory of moral judgment  Moral judgment is assessed by presenting children with hypothetical moral dilemmas  Children are questioned about the issues involved in the moral judgment  Kohlberg was strongly influenced by piaget  Kohlberg’s stages  Kohlberg proposed three levels. Each level involves two stages of moral judgment o Preconventional: moral reasoning is self-centered, focusing on getting rewards and avoiding punishment o Conventional: moral reasoning is centered on social relationships o Postconventional; moral reasoning is involved with ideals, focusing on moral principles  Kholberg’s theory of moral judgment  Stages are universal o People all over the world go though these stages in the same order, although they difer with regard to the final stage they attain  Perspective taking o Levels of cognitive development, especially individuals’ skills in perspective taking, determined progress through the stages Orientation Description 1. Punishment and obedience What is seen as right is obedience to authorities 2. Instrumental and exchange Morality is defined in terms of one’s own best interest or a tit-for- tat exchange of benefits 3. Mutual interpersonal Good behavior is doing what is expected by people close to the expectations, relationships, and individual or by fulfilling the expectations of social role interpersonal conformity 4. Social system and conscienceRight behavior involves fulfilling one’s duties, upholding laws, and contributing to society or one’s group 5. Social contract or individual Right behavior involves upholding rules that are in the best rights interest of the group 6. Universal ethnical principles Values and rights are universally right and must be upheld regardless of majority opinion  Critique of Kohlberg’s theory  Kohlberg’s theory o Reflects biased, intellectualized western conception of morality that is not applicable to non-western cultures o Views moral reasoning development as discontinuous o Does not address gender diferences in moral reasoning  Said women have less moral sophistication  Carol Gilligan o Kohlberg’s classification of moral judgment is centered on principles of justice and rights which are valued more by males than females o Values of caring and responsibility for others are more central to females o If steal medicine for sick husband, cant say that helping husband is bad because you steal because have diferent morals  Eisenberg’s stages of prosocial behavior  This pattern of changes has been found in a variety of western countries o Children from diferent cultures do vary somewhat in their reasoning, reflecting the values of the culture o Children using higher-level prosocial in their behavior than children who use lower-level prosocial moral judgment  Domains of social judgment  Moral judgments: decisions that pertain to issues of right and wrong, fairness and justice  Social conventional judgments: decisions that pertain to customers or regulations intended to secure social coordination and social organization  Personal judgments: decisions that refer to actions in which individual preferences are the main consideration  Children’s use of social judgment  In many cultures, children begin to diferentiate between moral and social conventional issues as early as age 3, and see moral transgressions as more serious ofenses  children even adolescents believe that parents have authority over moral and social conventional issues in the family, but not over matters of personal judgment  The development of conscience  Conscience o Involves an internal regulatory mechanism that increases the individuals ability to conform with standards of conduct accepted in his or her culture o Primarily reflects internalized parental standards in young children  Factors affecting the development of conscience  In contrast to Freud’s view, children development a conscience slowly over time  Two-year-olds show an appreciation for moral standards and rules and begin to exhibit signs of guilt when they do something wrong  As they mature, children are more likely to take on their parents’ moral values if their parents use rational explanations, rather than harsh discipline and if the children are securely attached  Development of conscience  Children may develop a conscience in diferent was according to their temperament  Young children often have not internalized some of their parents prohibitions and values. The degree to which they do so appears to depend on the quality of the parenting they receive and, in part, on their temperament  If kids are fearful, exhibit more guilt and if give them a little fear with guidance wont do it again  If kids aren’t fearful, the need a firm talk and a punishment I don’t like  Prosocial behavior  The development of prosocial behavior


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