Week 7 notes
Week 7 notes Sociology 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. James Kanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Misconceptions about the Poor • They’re lazy o Most poor adults have jobs or they are too young, too old, or disabled • Welfare dependence o 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act • Most poor are chronically poor o Majority of poor are temporary poor, although many live very close to the line (<10% are poor for 3 consecutive years) Movement in the System: Social Mobility • Types of mobility o Intergenerational mobility (compares adults with parents) o Intragenerational mobility (compares adults at beginning of career with end of career) § After decades of significant mobility in the US, the past two decades have shown significant slowing and when it occurs, it tends to be slight • Importance of college education is particularly acute for people at the bottom of the class structure Race and Ethnicity Does Race Matter? • Race is a socially-constructed idea that refers to people who share selected physical characteristics that are given social meaning o Race is an invented classification system; humans are 99.9% genetically identical o Race is social created; there is little to no scientific agreement on a biological basis for race; perception is key o Ideas about what racial groups are change with time and across societies The Basics: Ethnicity • Ethnicity is based on shared cultural and social characteristics o Nationality and religion are often connected with ethnicity • Ethnic groups tend to have unique and distinct beliefs, values, and behaviors o Shared sense of identity, therefore belonging Race and Ethnicity and Well Being • Infant mortality • Life expectancy Racial Discrimination • Using regular words or phrases in reference to a particular group • Placing limits on opportunity based on racial group membership • Engaging in violent acts against an individual or member of a racial group • Classifications o Individual discrimination o Institutional or structural discrimination embedded in social institutions Racism in Post-Civil Rights Era • Explicitly anti-black attitudes among voters increased after election of President Obama • Surveys of whites suggest that stereotypical blacks are perceived to be more criminal • Harsher punishments are found to be more acceptable when offenders are perceived to be black • Public support for voter id restrictions increases when images of non-white voters are presented Privilege • Social, cultural, and economic advantages associated with membership in a particular group • Tendency to view these advantages as “the norm” for all and are therefore often not recognized as advantages • Doesn’t mean privileged group doesn’t have to work hard, they just don’t face some of the same obstacles o Ex: name association experiment Racial/Ethnic Co-Existence • Assimilation-based relations o Anglo-conformity: immigrants are accepted as long as they conform to the host society, traditionally American institutions are maintained o Melting pot: all ethnic and racial minorities blend together o Cultural pluralism: recognizes immigrant’s desires to maintain as least a remnant of their “old” way while accommodating American values and norms o Segregation: physical and institutional separation (forced or voluntary) of dominant and minority groups § De jure segregation and de facto segregation • In 2000 Alabama finally removed ban on interracial marriage, maintains legality of racial segregation in schools o Subjugation: involuntary social separation with individual rights § Ex: slavery o Expulsion: forced removal of one population by another Overview of Genocide • Intentional extermination of one population by another o Has been in existence since biblical times • In the past 100 years o Armenian: 1 million Armenian Christians o Holocaust: 6 million Jews and 5 million undesirables o Cambodia: 2 million dead (30% of the population) o Bosnia: 200,000 Bosnian Muslims o Rwanda: 800,000 Tutsis and Moderate Hutus (over 6-week period) o Kosovo: 13,000 mostly Albanians o Darfur: more than 400,000
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