Genetics Week 11
Genetics Week 11 BIOL/PBIO 3333
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL/PBIO 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jim Thompson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
March 28, 2016 IX. Chromosome Organization A. Single vs. repetitive sequences B. Nucleosomes C. Higher orders of folding X. Changes in Structure and Number A. Chromosome Mutations (aberrations) 1. Deletions 2. Duplications 3. Inversions 4. Translocations 5. Deletion Map B. Changes in Number 1. Euploidy vs Aneuploidy 2. Non-disjunction 3. Polyploidy DNA unique sequence = 1 copy per haploid genome Compare to repetitive sequences A = T (2 hydrogen bonds) C = G (3 hydrogen bonds) No direct correlation between the amount of DNA in a species and its developmental complexity. Components of a chromosome (for example, in metaphase) relative amount: DNA 100 Histone proteins 114 non-histone proteins 33 RNA 1 Histones = among the most highly conserved proteins in eukaryotes about 60 million copies of each type per cell nucleosome: 8 protein structure _ _ | H2A | | H2B | all 2x | H3 | | H4 | _ _ attach to scaffold proteins “looped proteins” 20,000 - 80,000 bp on average “chromomeres” H1 serves as binding protein in nucleosome Other non-histone proteins appear to gather several loops together into daisy like rosettes Polytene chromosomes of Drosophila - allow detailed study of the relationship between genes and chromosome morphology acentric chromosome - one centromere dicentric chromosome - two centromeres March 30, 2016 IX. Chromosome Organization X. Changes in Structure and Number A. Chromosome Mutations (aberrations) 1. Deletions 2. Duplications 3. Inversions 4. Translocations 5. Deletion Mapping B. Changes in Number 1. Euploidy vs Aneuploidy 2. Non-disjunction 3. Ployploidy XI. Bacterial and Viral Genetics Cri du Chat (french, cry of the cat) syndrome - a chromosome deletion syndrome - collection of symptoms that correlate together for a speciﬁc disease Pericentric inversion - different chromosome arms, centromere is included in inversion Paracentric inversion - Same chromosome arm acentric - no centromere, will get lost during meiosis Homozygous - cell isn't going to be effected at all Heterozygous - form a loop translocation heterozygote - has to include chromosomes from 2 linkage groups April 1, 2016 X. Changes in Structure and Number A. Chromosome Mutations (aberrations) 5. Deletion mapping B. Changes in Number 1. Euploidy vs Aneuploidy 2. Non-disjunction 3. Polyploidy XI. Bacterial and Viral Genetics A. remember: prototrophs and auxotrophs B. Methods of Replication 1. Sigma mode 2. Theta mode C. DNA transfer in bacteria Upcoming Events: Exam #3 (April 8th), Term Essay (April 11th) Participation #5 of 8 An Application: Deletion Mapping Where deletions all overlap will be answer Non-disjunction (double negative) - coming together in division one 2 (n+1), 2 (n-1) in division two 1 (n+1), 1 (n-1), 2 (n) 2n-1 monosomic 2n+1 trisomy Down Syndrome Etiologies Trisomy 21 95% Inherited translocation 4% Mosaic 1% *Flat facial proﬁle, small nose, epicentral folds of the eyelid, varying degrees of mental retardation frequency = 1/600 newborns More frequent in mothers who are older Pataus Syndrome Trisomy 13 - Three copies of chromosome 13, cleft lip, cleft palette, severe mental retardation Edward Syndrome Trisomy 18 - severe growth deﬁciency, mental retardation, congenital heart disease, etc. XO 2n=45 monosomic for the X chromosome
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