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Physics 2080 Chapter 26 Notes

by: Amanda Biddlecome

Physics 2080 Chapter 26 Notes Physics 2080

Marketplace > Clemson University > Physics 2 > Physics 2080 > Physics 2080 Chapter 26 Notes
Amanda Biddlecome
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These notes cover Chapter 26 which is on geometric optics. This is the first week of Unit 4.
General Physics 2
Dr. Pope
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Physics 2080 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Pope in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Physics 2 in Physics 2 at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Physics  2080   Chapter  26:  Geometric  Optics   April  1,  2016   Amanda  Biddlecome     1)  Reflection  of  Light     -­‐rays  give  wave  propagation  direction     -­‐wave  fronts=concentric  circles  and  get  flat  far  away     -­‐have  a  flat  surface  and  draw  the  normal       *point  incident  light  at  surface       *some  light  is  transmitted  and  some  is  reflected       θ=θ i   r *θ=distance  from  the  normal       -­‐light  rays  can  reflect       *specular  reflection:  reflected  rays=all  parallel  to  one  another;           produces  smooth  and  clear  image       *diffuse  reflection:  reflected  rays  travel  in  random  directions;  not         smooth  surfaces     2)  Plane  Mirror     -­‐light  ray  comes  from  bottom  and  top  of  the  flower  to  strike  the  mirror  so     θ=θ i r       *eye  interprets  ray  as  a  straight  line       *we  see  it  as  light  and  objects  behind  the  mirror  because  of  incident         and  reflected  light       *heights  and  distances  from  a  plane  mirror  are  the  same     -­‐Properties       *image  is  upright  with  left  and  right  reversed       *image  appears  to  be  the  same  distance  behind  the  mirror  as  the         object  is     d =do   i *d : o distance  of  the  object   *d:  distance  of  the  image   i       *magnification=1:  image  is  the  same  size  as  the  object     -­‐principle  axis  is  between  the  center  of  the  curve  of  the  mirror       *look  at  the  light  around  the  point     -­‐Lateral  Magnification=M=image  height/object  height           M=h/h =-­‐d/i o i o   *M=magnification   *h=heiiht  of  the  image   *h =heoght  of  the  object             *distance  behind  the  mirror  is  negative       *a  flat  mirror  has  an  M  of  1     3)  Spherical  Mirror     -­‐convex=outside  of  spherical  mirror       *upright  image  always       *smaller  image  always  (magnification  is  decreased)     -­‐concave=inside  of  spherical  mirror       *multiple  possibilities  depending  on  placement  of  object  to  the  center         of  the  curve     4)  Concave  Mirrors     -­‐radius  of  curvature  (R)       -­‐center  of  curvature  (C)  (center  of  the  circle)     -­‐center  of  mirror  (V)     -­‐line  from  C  to  V=principal  axis     -­‐object  (O)     -­‐image  (I)-­‐light  rays  converge  at  one  point  to  form  image     -­‐rays  diverge  from  image  as  if  image  is  actually  there       *real  image     -­‐always  have  real  image  when  reflected  light  passes  through  a  point     -­‐large  angles=spherical  aberrations  (blurred  images)       *want  small  angles     (1/d )+(1/d)o2/R=1/f   i *mirror  equation   *R=radius  of  curvature       -­‐image  point  is  halfway  between  the  center  of  the  curve  and  the  center  of  the     mirror     (1/d)=2/R i d=Ri2     5)  Convex  Mirror     -­‐diverging  mirror     -­‐image  behind  the  mirror=virtual  image       *small  and  upright     6)  Ray  Diagrams     -­‐determine  position  and  size  of  images     -­‐Steps       *draw  principal  axis       *draw  three  rays:  1)  from  object  parallel  to  principal  axis  and  reflect         back  through  focal  point  2)  from  object  through  focal  point  then         parallel  to  principal  axis  3)  from  object  through  center  of  curve  and         reflect  directly  back       *image  is  at  the  point  where  the  three  rays  meet     -­‐Concave  Mirror  with  object  outside  center  of  curve:  real,  inverted,  M<1     -­‐Concave  Mirror  with  object  between  the  mirror  and  the  focal  point:  always       virtual,  upright,  M>1     -­‐Convex  with  object  in  front:  virtual,  upright,  M<1     -­‐if  R  and  F  are  both  positive,  it’s  concave       *if  both  are  negative,  it’s  convex       *signs  of  these  two  will  always  be  the  same     -­‐Focal  Length:  (+)  for  concave,  (-­‐)  for  convex     -­‐Image  Distance:  (+)  for  real,  (-­‐)  for  virtual     -­‐Magnification:  (+)  for  upright,  (-­‐)  for  inverted     -­‐Object  Distance:  (+)  for  real,  (-­‐)  for  virtual     7)  Refraction  of  Light     -­‐speed  of  light  in  air  is  3.00X10   8   -­‐when  light  goes  through  a  medium,  the  speed  of  light  slows  down  and  bends     as  a  consequence       *refraction     -­‐if  it  reflects,  you  have  θ  and  θ i r   -­‐refracted  light  passes  through  a  medium     -­‐always  measure  the  angles  to  the  normal     -­‐Snell’s  Law       *constant       *index  of  refraction  (n)=c/v  (unitless;  always  1  or  greater)     n s1nθ =n sinθ 1   2 2 *n =in1ex  of  refraction  for  medium  one   *θ =an1le  one   *n =i2dex  of  refraction  for  medium  two   *θ =an2le  two         *frequency  doesn’t  change  when  you  find  the  new  velocity     v 1fλ  v 1fλ  2 2     -­‐can  make  objects  appear  broken     -­‐How  to  do  refraction  problems       *draw  ray  diagram       *draw  line  normal  to  boundary:  where  light  hits  the  boundary       *show  ray  bending  in  correct  direction:  angle  is  larger  on  the  side         with  smaller  index  of  refraction       *label  angle  of  incidence  and  refraction;  measure  to  normal       *use  Snell’s  Law  to  get  the  unknown     8)  Total  Internal  Reflection     -­‐fiberoptic  devices     -­‐whenever  light  is  shown  with  higher  index  of  refraction  to  lower  index  of     refraction,  then  we  have  a  critical  angle       -­‐if  you’re  at  or  above  the  critical  angle,  all  of  the  light  is  transmitted       perpendicular  to  the  normal       *all  light  stays  within  the  object     -­‐at  90  degrees,  the  light  is  entirely  reflected     sinθ =n /n   c 2 1 *θ =θ 1  θ =c0   2 *for  n >n 1  2   9)  Dispersion     -­‐where  we  get  rainbow  effect  from     -­‐can  break  light  up  into  its  different  parts     -­‐index  of  refraction  varies  with  frequency     -­‐have  different  wavelengths  in  white  light  that  go  into  the  prism  to  break     them  up  into  different  dispersions     -­‐rainbows  are  made  by  dispersion  of  light  as  it  refracts  in  a  rain  drop       *violet  has  a  smaller  angle  than  red       *you  can  only  see  rays  that  converge  at  your  eyeballs     -­‐angle  of  deviation  for  prism  (δ)       *different  wavelengths  have  different  deviations    


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