Microbiology Exam 4 Lecture Notes
Microbiology Exam 4 Lecture Notes MCB2000
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.
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MCB2000 Exam Four Lecture Notes Agents Used to Treat Fungal Infections Selective toxicity where are the weakest parts of the bacteria/organism to attack Cell wall is made of peptidoglycan, humans don’t have that, very good target, Penicillin based antibiotics do this Protein Synthesis translation, good target, both use ribosomes, Human ribosomes are different, Eukaryotic Ribosome is different that Prokaryotic, good target as well Metabolic Activities both perform Krebs cycle, Glycolsis, electron transport system, shared, antimetabolites compounds given to the patient that don’t harm the host Folic acid required to make DNA and RNA, everyone must use one way or another, Human bodies don't make this, we get it from the outside, Bacteria make their own folic acid good to target sulfur drugs target metabolic activities DNA/RNA molecules transcription, replication, making DNA and making RNA, drugs against this replication Cell Membrane fungi have some differences from other Eukaryotes, cannot use penicillin against them, don’t have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, good target against Fungi Ergosterol Azoles synthesis of Ergosterol, Polyenes target the structure of Estergol, Amphotericin B most common antifungal Drug Actions of Antiviral Drugs Obligate Intracellular Pathogens go inside cell, take over, use their machinery More difficulty with viruses than anything else Try to treat symptoms, Supportive Therapy doesn't cure the disease itself Prevent penetration and entry into the host, need to understand the receptor Stop the uncoding good target Targeting the release of Nucleic Acid inside the host Prevent the Virus from Assembly: HIV infection RNA virus must be converted into DNA get into the host chromosome The enzymes RT takes RNA and makes DNA out of it, only Retroviruses have this (HIV), RT is a great Target, Drug called RT Inhibiter prevents Enzyme from doing its job Tamiflu block the entry of the Virus by interfering with the fusion of the virus with the cell membrane of the host, stop the release of the virus from getting out and spreading, prophylaxis of the Flu Structure Analong looks like the nucleotides but doesn't function properly, against herpesvirus Riboviron hemorrhagic fever, against Hep RT inhibitors most famous is AZT Drug of choice against reverse transcriptase, against HIV is protease inhibiters, second drug against HIV, protease is an enzyme, prohibits the virus from packaging the protein and making more viruses, prevent the virus from synthesizing its nucleic acid Not a lot of choices of treatments against viruses Mechanisms of Drug Resistance B Lactam Ring Penicillin based antibiotics possible to pump the drug out, change the target from getting in, modify the drug, bypass your pathway and go through a detour goal is to not let the drug effect your processes by prohibiting the drug from binding, having it pave another road, stopping it from the blocked pathway when you take antibiotics your immune system relies on the Normal Flora microbial antagonism, your bacteria prevents other bacteria from establishing residence in your body, they cover up your processes (sexual organs, intestines, skin, colon) taking antibiotics decreases your normal flora, if you discontinue it your body will replenish and repopulate it some food comes with some bacteria that helps you repopulate Probiotics, yogurt antimicrobial agents don’t work for all diseases because not all diseases are caused by microbes Chemotherapeutics refers to all chemicals you take to protect you against all types of diseases, heart medicine, blood pressure medicine, help with your own physiology antibiotics chemicals against bacterial antimicrobials against all microbes that cause infection MIC minimum inhibitory concentration, lowest amount of drug that kills or stops microbes from growing, needed for drug companies to decide how much the want you take and how many times a day the regimen, less than MICmore than MIC neither will work Immune System designed to protect against all things coming at us a network of vessels that run around the whole body made of cells, organs, supporting molecules Lymphatic system location of immune system, sucks all free liquid back into the system, collects the free liquid around the body, “storm drain”, organs, tissues, vessels lyphocytes NK, part of innate and acquired immunity phagocytes phagocytic cells, part of immune system, they have an organ inside called lysosome (small organelle), inside you find hydrolytic enzymes (kill bacteria proteaselysozyme), harsh chemicals in it (oxidizing agentsperoxides) can damage the bacteria or fungi, bind to infections and bring bacteria in phagosome fuses with lysosome, exposes bacteria to the chemicals and it alienates and dissolves the bacteria, spits it out that process ^ happens with dead cells and other small microbes that enter the body mast cells basophils, inflammatory response cells like allergy elephant foot disease where lymphatic tissue is blocked so the free liquid is not circulating back, the body swells and makes more skin to compensate, keeps growing and becomes twicethree times the size, inability to recycle/collect the liquid microbes attack us, compounds from outside come in, our own cells can become cancerous, cuts and bruises divide the host immune system into components Innate: nonspecific (doesn’t care if the infection is bacterial, viral, what type of either, it provides protection non specifically), components include dividing into lines of defense first and second, born with this, responds always the same wayfever inflammation First line of defense skin, mucous membrane, surface protection, enzymes, molecules Second line of defense phagocytosis, physically eat and remove the infection, inflammation, pain, swelling, redness, warm touch, fever…. : complement proteins always present in the bloodinactive fromwhen infection enters they become activated complement fixationactivated, membrane attack complex MAC, pokes a hole onto the bacteria, leaks lysis killed , opsonization coating the bacteria labeling it with bacteria, attack phagocytic cells, Acquired: specific (looks to see what type of infection viral? then what type hepatitis?), these components develop over time if you never get exposed to flu virus you will never develop protection against it, Third layer Third layer/line of defense cells and supporting molecules as well, main B cells and T cells There is cooperation between the Innate and the Acquired immune systems, always need the firstsecondthird line of defenses against infections, there is separate work for each one but there is also overlap for each of them Anatomical Defenses: Skin low pH, sweat, lysozyme enzyme that kills bacteria, salt, normal flora that prevents other bacteria from establishing an infection Saliva and Tears Stomach acidity Intestinal Enzymes bile salts, kill bacteria Kidney steril Bladder contains some bacteria, urinating gets rid of bacteria holding your bladder is not good can cause bacteria to travel up and cause kidney infection Cilia short appendages, cover trachea, can become inactivated by viral infection makes you prone to secondary bacterial infection Upper Respiratory job to trap particles before they reach the lung Lymph nodes under armpits, neck area, groin, midsection, liquid pass through these and detect infection Blood Components all blood components come from the Bone Marrow Stem Cells raw molecule or dough that can be shaped into anything you want, can make red/white/platelets all blood components come from bone marrow, stem cells in bone marrow, all components that run the blood come from bone marrow red, white, platelets platelets involved in blood clot, prevents you from bleeding to death, can leave blood and come out in the open, free liquid red blood cells erythrocytes, carry oxygen around, leaves heart and comes back, circulation process, remain in the blood white blood cells leukocytes, involved in the immune system, free liquid Myloid some turn into erythrocytes Cytokines proteins produced by the immune system cells, used for attacking bacteria, communication, activating each other trigger the other cells to differentiate and multiply Interferons important against viruses produce TNF important regarding cancer cells, destroy and kill other cells inflammatory mediators not cytokines, but are chemicals that stimulate and cause inflammation, degranulate mast cellseosinophilsbasophils see infection and release granules that are inflammatory, EX: histamine, serotonin, result in typical allergic reaction Inflammation result of body producing inflammatory compound results in redness, swelling, heat, pain all of this happens on the site of injury or infection Acute quick to develop, heals quickly, beneficial, very good Chronic slow, low grade, damaging, lasts long remove infection right away to prevent chronic inflammation non specific event, part of innate immunity, reacts the same way no matter what brings recruitment of phagocytic cells, attracts them to the area, fights infection Vasodilation cell becomes more porous and passes by phagocytic cells, leave and get out into the open Neutrophils major phagocytic cells for bacteria , agent bacteria Interferon fight against viruses, one cell is infected with the virus, fights against and kills the RNA of the incoming viruses all components of bacteria can act like an antigen, triggers and activates size restriction to antigens, antigen must be big enough protein most antigenic B Cells T cells are part of bone marrow T cells have to mature in the Thymus and then go to the lymph nodes has to be processed APC a cell that recognizes the antigen. processes it, and then presents it to T Cells, EX: B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages plasma cells produce antibodies to fight infection TB become memory cells, when hepatitis comes back it binds better the second time Both originated from bone marrow, but t cells mature in bone marrow Specific, B cells has antibodies on there surface, T cells have TCR on the surface. plasma cells neutralize toxins and complete fixation. T cells are involved in a process called CMI B cells are involved in a process called AMI There are three APC ’s dendritic cells, b cells and macrophage, their job is to process the infection. APC presents the antigen to T helper cells. and releases cytokines antibodies are proteins produced by plasma cells. theres an antibody for every infection Opsonization cutting the bacteria with the infection agglutination imobilizes bateria another consequence of antibodies immunity complex formation is complement fixation when you neutralize a virus you inactivate them Characteristics of the Immunoglobulin Classes proteins made and secreted by activated B cells called Plasma cells antibodies are made of proteins, they are soluble, they float around, they don't last a while, they float around and then turn over and die and new ones are created every AB is made of 4 pieces polypeptide proteins (2 heavy chains identical), (2 light chains identical) FAB part of AB that binds to the AG, bottom part is FC every AB can bind to 2 AG at the same time 5 classes that are different in their FAB portion, FAB recognizes each section individually, if they recognize the same than they are the same FAB IGG abundant in the blood, passes through the placenta and protects Fetus from infection IGA abundant in secretionssalivabody fluid IGM after first infection, made of 5 AB binds together IGE involved in allergies and recognizes allergens Primary Response first ever exposure to an infection, IGM shows up predominant antibody slow to develop doesn't last very long low level response Secondary Response anytime after the first time, develops quickly, higher Titer higher response, higher antibody, lasts longer Vaccines weak forms of the disease to mimic the primary response, they tell your body you have the infection so that the second time it happens your body detects it already and you wont have any problems Hyposensitivities Primary Immunodeficiency Secondary Immunodeficiency Hypersensitivities Type 1: immediate type, food allergy, pet dandruff, IGM, EX: asthma, hay fever, can be systemic as well as localized, degranulate mast, basophils, create histamines Type 2: react to red blood cells of someone else, IGG, EX: autoimmune disease Type 3: AG/AB deposited someplace in the body, inflammation, complex mediated, EX: serum sickness, arthritis, lupus Type 4: delayed time, poison ivy, TB tests, T cells different drugs that prevent the deagulination CA, amP, don't allow the histamine to hit the target Mother = RH, baby = + RH, wont affect first child but will effect the memory of the seance Lecture Friday Acquired Immunity AMI, CMI, specificity, antigen is recognized by antibody, one antibody fro every antigen when bacteria enters, there are antibodies that fight against every aspect of the cells (pili, capsule, cell wall) Serology studies the interaction between antigen and antibody : AG/AB results in complement fixation, neutralization, agglutinate, opsonizate, precipitate : In Vitro in the lab : In Vivo in the human body Indirectly looking for the presence of an unknown antibody, Detect programs of M, indirect detect the AB made in response Immunologic Methods Testing Flourisone antobody test: uses a microscope to detect, fluorescent dye, detected under UV light, good identification technique ELISA: make a plate with 96 holes, put diff amounts of AG/AB on the plate, they interact, enzyme attaches to the antibody, adding substrate causes the color to differ, this is a colorimetric test based on the development of color because of the action of the enzyme, more color more enzyme more antibody present, used to detect the presence of infection agent measles, direct technique to detect the presence of a pathogen, Indirect detects presence of antibody produced by the agent against an infection, measures Titer amount as well how much virus? how much antibody produced? Flow Cytometry: machine that measures cells, tells you how many you have, attaches different antibodies to cells, the machine separates and measures them Monoclomal Antibody: population of antibody that are recognized to only one Antigen, for HIV, Hepatitis, Chicken pox, labs can go purchase this, produced by taking HIV virus injecting an animal mouse produces antibody against the HIV kill the animal take the spleen spleen provides B cells that produced the Antibody that was looked for fused with Cancer cells make a hybridome (mix of animal cell and cancer cell) produces antibody that never dies Applied and Environmental Microbiology only a fraction of microbes cause disease microbes are the first one to appear without microbes life is impossible to maintain microbes can take CO2 and fix it, N2 and fix it or release it essential for modifying, degrading, and producing add carbon to the soil, clean up dead organic material extract minerals from Ores, mining bottom of the food chain for marine and water play a major role in carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur cycle CO2 and CH4 combination contributes to Global Warming microbes can be autotrophs, phototrophs, methanogens, methanotrophs can fix methane gas, produce it, control it we are protected from the UV light by the Ozone Global Warming infrared, H4, CO2, too much CO2 and Methane more heat stays with us and increases the temperature cows graze all day and produce methane Raw Sewage mixture of organic and inorganics goal is to remove these excess organics before releasing the water back, microbes ar involved in removing the organic portion sewage goes through Three Treatments Primary separation of solids form liquids, no microbes involved Secondary organics are removed, microbes involved Tertiary inorganics are removed, no microbes involved Sludge Digester a lot of organics in here, anaerobic process, placed in big tanks, microbes digest organics and produce methane gas Archaea helpful to the planet, involved in the sludge digestion process, they are methanogens, burn fumes Septic Tank comparable to the primary treatment dig a hole in backyard, place concrete block, sewage goes into this container, there is a draining field, the access liquid goes into the ground, the solid portion stays in, every few years it is pumped out and taken to the landfill Drinking Water requires proper taste, color, oder (chemicals) Alum technique that removes chemicals Activated Charcoal removes chemicals Ozone, UV light, chlorine kills microbes Ozone needed to kill cysts of parasites chlorine best way to make water safe that is available now, kills microbes