ANT 215 Week 12
ANT 215 Week 12 ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Classic Period Classic Maya Debate over state or chiefdom society o Many small city-states controlled by powerful rulers Height of Maya civilization Trade with Teotihuacan as large political aspect Politics o Ruled by divine king—Ajaw o Interrelated chiefdoms o Power in form of land control and trade networks o Stelae: large stone (limestone) monoliths with images of rulers/kings Commemoration/propaganda; highly visible even if unreadable Sites: Tikal: one of largest, 6 sq. miles, 10-90k people Famous for acropolis—steep, combed tombs Residential structures surrounding (mounds) Specialization and ruler priest that rule portion of site “great plaza” as core of city Water fed by moats/reservoirs Religion: Perceived 3 layers of world: Underworld (gods of death and disease— Xibalba), human world, upper world Maize god as central figure Collapse: 900-1000 AD population moves north towards Yucatan Research evidence of many small collapses o Drought o Warfare o Increased population pressure o Malnutrition and disease Classic Maya: population shift from hostile areas with lots of warfare, puts pressure on surrounding regions, pressure leads to supply issues; compounded by lack of rainfall for long period Post Classic Maya 900-1100 AD Population to Yucatan and lowlands Attempted to recreate architecture styles Itza Maya rule over region capital—Chichen Itza Changes: o Region dealing with collapse of Classic period—series of smaller states rising/falling o Emergence of new powerful states Mexica (Aztec empire, central Mexico) Capital—Tenochtitlan: largest most powerful in Mesoamerica; population of 150-200k people when Spanish arrived Tarascans (Michoacan, West Mexico) Mixtex (Monte Alban/Oazaca) South America—Andes Civilization Geography Andes Mountains: longest in world, highest peak 6100m Pacific Coastal desert plain to west—Atacama Desert (driest in world) Amazon basin to east Climate Variable on elevation/location o Hot/wet in Amazon basin o Cold/dry in mountains Maritime focus: resources like fish and sea mammals confirmed by Moche pottery—designs as evidence Agriculture then sedentary life—3000 BC Chinchorro culture: mainly known for mummies—oldest to date, lives in Atacama Desert relied on hunting fishing and gathering mummies around 5000 BC, peak at 3000 BC all members mummified, not only elites—children/babies were most elaborate El Paraiso Site: one of earliest settled with monumental construction and dense population(2500 BC) 9 architectural complexes with civil-ceremonial purposes little occupation evidence more focused on religion marine as main resource Stone lined courts in front of mounds Early Horizon Period (800 BC – 1 AD) Chavin culture: spread of religious ideology from inscriptions on pottery Chavin de Huantar Site: steep geography, evidence of trade outside this region Herding camelids & farmed high altitudes (potato), traded for chili peppers, salt & dried fish Two construction phases: o old—initial period; “old temple” of two wings to create open court in center circular plaza o new—early horizon period, major construction around ceremonial center Art: human-animal hybrids representing deities; images drawn from tropical animals Andean Metallurgy: art style applied to their advanced metal work, including gold smithing, soldering, and smelting Jaguar iconology: powerful figures Early Intermediate Period (1 AD – 600): “classic” from cultural changes that are occurring Moche: 50km inland, elaborate irrigation system, supports 50,000 people; evidence of stratification in burials, wealth, and pottery; very few with animal head figures; hunting/fishing/agriculture; men hunted/fished (sea mammals), women wove cloth/textiles; grew cotton, maize; evidence of violence, human sacrifice (more frequent); differential in wealth—class system; Art was most important for anthropologists, potters were craftsmen, showing daily life (fishing/weaving/sacrifice), some showing very sexual depictions; Site:Sipan: royal Moche tomb, possibly richest burial found in W. hemisphere, evidence of different wealth levels, clothing and pottery showed human sacrifice, some amputated limbs found (from people sacrificed) Nazca: Nazca Valley, complex irrigation; no large urban centers, mainly villages/towns, overlapped with Moche; evidence of warfare amongst themselves “head hunters”; Nazca lines in Nazca desert—moved white pebbles, some simple lines others resembled animals, purpose unknown (territorial marker, directions to water sources, designs for gods— extraterrestrials made patterns); trepanation—early brain surgery; use of coca—chewed as stimulant Impressive irrigation; Moche, Nazca, and irrigation set state for Inca Empire Middle Horizon Different competing states—Wari and Tiwanaku Tiwanaku: southern of lake, first and largest based on potatoes farming, used flooded, raised fields, herding of llamas; expanded their state, founded colonies, large trade routes (influencing Inca lifestyle), human sacrifice rituals on Akipana; sun iconography, ancestor worship—maintain their lifestyle, thought ancestors were still around to affect daily life; temple mounds by ruled labor, early Chavin culture (one staff located in their city); llama caravans were trade force—expansion from economic trade Wari: short lived, controlled by military use, adopted Tiwanaku pantheon, built road network (used by Inca), used terracing for agriculture Late Intermediate Fall of Wari/Tiwanaku and 7 states competeing for power, Chimu culture: developed from earlier Moche culture, came from site of Chimor that falls from inca expansion Chan Chan (capital): dominated by “little cities”, 10 discovered, each represented a new king that would construct his compound; each king had craft specialists, rest of population lived outside compounds; 25k people Late Horizon Inca Empire founded, ancestry traced to Tiwanaku culture Split inheritance: new king gained power and rights and wealth went to sons of old king Machu Picchu; built for king Pachakuti; design and engineering complex with water ways, temple significance Expansion: new kings needed to conquer new lands and gain wealth: Mit’a (labor tax) and dividing agricultural products (1/3 to temples/gods, state, and local center); Mitmaq—how they colonized/spread, breaking/relocating groups against Inca empire to minimize rebellion; key resource: potatoes Cuzco (capital): highest leader=Inca, atypical—administrative function, commoners in smaller cities; Spanish destroyed cite, removed gold; many roads filter into this settlement for drop off of goods and redistribution Large road system of paved roads—key factors for empire/military expansion to conquer (from Wari/Tiwanaku development) Chasqui: relay runners stationed along roads to pass messages, able to go 160 miles in one day Quipu “knot”: knotted cord system, recorded numbers by tying at intervals; color, placement was used as binary code to carry messages *non-traditional writing form Fall: Huascar was in civil war with half-brother; occurred when Spanish were coming into region and after this fight the weakened system allowed Spanish to gain control
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