PSYC 2010- Chapter 14 Notes
PSYC 2010- Chapter 14 Notes Psyc 2010-003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders The medical model says that it is acceptable to think of abnormal behavior as a disease. It still has a very strong influence today. The medical model improved the way that patients with disease were treated. Now people think that this term has been overused and labels people in a derogatory way. It is hard to define abnormal because it is situational and it does not have a clear breaking point. Things that are abnormal are not culturally accepted, statistically uncommon, cause distress, and cause dysfunction. People who deviate from what is considered normal in the culture they live in are considered abnormal. Whenever something affects one’s social or occupational functioning it is considered abnormal. Whenever one describes their state to be in extreme distress, their behavior is considered abnormal. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-‐5, most current edition) talks about disorders using the atheoretical approach. This book is constantly improving overtime. Using this manual does not guarantee a correct diagnosis. According to this manual women seem to be more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders and men are more likely to suffer from antisocial disorders and substance abuse. Researchers who have a strong clinical interest would probably want to read this manual. Critics believe that this manual has a flaw in that it places all people in nonoverlapping categories. A lot of mental illnesses share characteristics, so critics feel like this is not accurate. With every new issue that has been published, there are more and more mental illnesses identified. Critics believe that too much emphasis is being put on just regular everyday problems. Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder is having a high level of anxiety that is not tied to a real threat. People who suffer from this have physical symptoms such as muscle tension and diarrhea. A phobia is an irrational fear of an object or situation that doesn’t pose any real danger. A social phobia is when someone has an extreme fear of certain social situations. Phobias hinder everyday life for people who suffer from them. Agoraphobia is the fear of going out into public places. This causes some people to be confined in their own homes. This was originally said to be a type of phobia, but now it is seen to be associated with panic disorder. The fear comes from not wanting to show panic in public. A panic disorder is when someone has recurrent attacks of extreme anxiety. They occur very suddenly and unexpectedly. Obsessive-‐compulsive disorder (OCD) is having persistent, uncontrollable thoughts about unwanted material, and urges to engage in senseless rituals. There are two parts to OCD. The first is the obsessive part, this is having constantly recurring thoughts that are terrifying and/or upsetting. They just slam into the unconscious unexpectedly. The other part is the compulsive part. This involves having to engage in little rituals or behaviors. Sometimes these two parts are experienced together, and other times they are just separate from one another. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs sometimes after experiencing psychological disturbance caused by a major traumatic event. Many war veterans experience this after they get home from the war. Some symptoms are nightmares, feeling vulnerable, and feeling angry or guilty. The DSM-‐5 now considers OCD and PTSD to be separate from all other anxiety disorders. There are biological factors that cause anxiety disorders. Twin studies have been done to show that there is a genetic deposition to anxiety disorders. There has also been research done showing the relationship between anxiety disorders and neurochemical activity in the brain. Anxiety disorders can also be brought on by conditioning and learning. They can be acquired from classical conditioning and maintained by operant learning. There are some cognitive factors that influence anxiety disorders. Certain styles of thinking make a person more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. People who misinterpret harmless situations as threatening, focus excessive attention on perceived threats, and choose to recall information that is threatening tend to develop anxiety disorders. Having high levels of stress has been found to lead to an anxiety disorder. Dissociative Disorders These are disorders in which a person loses contact with portions of their consciousness or memory. It causes them to lose a sense of identity. Dissociative amnesia is when there is a sudden loss of memory about personal information that is too extensive to be considered normal forgetting. Sometimes these memory losses can occur just once, or multiple times. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is when identity is disrupted by the experience of two or more largely complete, and different personalities. This used to be called multiple personality disorder. This is sometimes mistaken for schizophrenia, which is very different. The personalities associated with DID usually are unaware of each other. Transitions between personalities can be very sudden. Usually excessive stress is the cause of dissociative disorders. Other causes of these disorders are sort of obscure. Sometimes talking to therapists or fantasizing can lead to them. Many researchers believe that it has to do with traumatic childhood experiences. Mood Disorders People who suffer from a mood disorder have severe emotional dysfunction. People with these disorders can still achieve great things because they can be episodic. This means that the symptoms of the disorder can come and go. Major depressive disorder is when a person experiences persistent feelings of sadness and despair. The person will also show a loss of interest in things that used to be enjoyable. A noticeable feature of this disorder is anhedonia. This is the diminished feeling to experience pleasure. Bipolar disorders involve having both a depressed and a manic period. A manic mood is the opposite of a depressed mood. The person is overly happy, hyperactive, and makes extravagant plans. Suicide is a very tragic outcome that is sometimes associated with depression. There are many suspected causes of these disorders: • Genetic vulnerability-‐ genetics strongly influence the chance of developing a mood disorder. Twin studies have been done to show this. • Neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors-‐ abnormal levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain have been associated with mood disorders. Having low levels of serotonin seems to lead to a mood disorder. Having reduced hippocampal volume has been found to lead to mood disorders also. • Hormonal factors-‐ the hypothalamic-‐pituitary-‐adrenocortical (HPA) is a pathway for different hormones. Having overactivity along the HPA axis has been found to be associated with mood disorders. Elevated levels of cortisol, which is produced by the HPA, has also been found to be associated with mood disorders. • Cognitive factors-‐ the development of mood disorders can depend on how a person views setbacks in their life. It has also been found that people who dwell in their depression are more likely to go through it for a longer period of time. The sum of all this is that negative thinking influences mood disorders. • Interpersonal roots-‐ social difficulties can cause people to develop mood disorders. There is also a correlation with poor social skills and depression. People who experience depression are more likely to experience awkward, or frustrating moments with friends and family. • Stress-‐ people who don’t have much stress in their lives have been known to develop depression, so this does not seem to have much of an impact. Also, many people who experience a lot of stress never develop depression. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia literally means, “split mind.” This disorder is marked by delusions, irrational thoughts, loss of adaptive behavior, distorted perceptions such as hallucinations, and disturbed emotions. This disorder brings a lot of havoc to the victim’s life. Many people who suffer from this disorder cannot hold a job, do not keep up their personal hygiene, and hear voices in their head. • Delusions and irrational thought-‐ delusions are false beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality. Victims believe that their private thoughts are being broadcasted to everyone, and that their thoughts are being put into their mind against their will. A delusion of grandeur is when people believe that they are famous or important when they really aren’t. • Loss of adaptive behavior-‐ this is the deterioration in the person’s ability to work, have social skills, and personal care. • Distorted perception-‐ hallucinations are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or they are gross distortions of perceptual input. This could also be hearing voices in your head. • Disturbed emotion-‐ victims show little emotional responsiveness. Others might show inappropriate emotional responses. The four subtypes are paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, and undifferentiated. There are negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and also positive symptoms. Positive symptoms are behaviors that are in excess, and negative symptoms are behaviors that are in a deficit. Positive symptoms include: • Delusions of persecution • Auditory hallucinations • Delusions of being controlled • Derailment of thought • Delusions of grandeur • Bizarre social, sexual behavior • Delusions of thought insertion • Aggressive, agitated behavior • Incoherent thought Negative symptoms include: • Few friendship relationships • Few recreational interests • Lack of persistence at work or school • Impaired grooming or hygiene • Paucity of expressive gestures • Social inattentiveness • Emotional nonresponsiveness • Inappropriate emotion • Poverty of speech There are a few suspected causes for these disorders: • Genetic vulnerability-‐ hereditary factors play a role in schizophrenia. Twin studies have been done to show this. • Neurochemical factors-‐ excess dopamine activity has been associated with schizophrenia. Marijuana use in the adolescent years may precipitate schizophrenia in people who have genetic vulnerability for it. Some people think that it is actually schizophrenia that causes cannabis use. • Abnormal brain structures-‐ enlarged brain ventricles have been found to be associated with schizophrenia. • Neurodevelopmental hypothesis-‐ this states that schizophrenia is caused in part by various disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth. Damage to the brain during important prenatal stages of development could bring on schizophrenia. • Expressed emotion-‐ this is the degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward the patient. Resentment towards the patient would not help the disorder but being patient would help it. • Stress-‐ High stress can make a person more vulnerable to the disorder. Autism Spectrums Disorders Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a profound impairment of social interaction and communication. There also are severely restricted interests and activities that are usually noticeable by the age of 3. One main feature of this is the child’s lack of interest in people. Verbal communication can be greatly impaired. Asperger’s disorder is milder form of autism. It used to be thought that bad parenting caused autism. Now this isn’t accepted and it is said that autism has a biological origin. Twin studies and family studies have been done that show how genetic factors influence autism. Another cause is brain enlargement around age 2. Another suspected cause is that the mercury used in some vaccines for children can bring about autism. Personality Disorders This is a class of disorders that are characterized by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning. There are 10 disorders under the personality disorder category: • Avoidant personality disorder-‐ very sensitive to rejection, humiliation, shame, socially withdrawn even they want to be accepted by others. • Dependent personality disorder-‐ lacking in self-‐reliance and self-‐esteem. Allows others to make decisions for them. • Obsessive-‐compulsive personality disorder-‐ has to have organization, rules, and schedules. Very serious and formal. • Schizoid personality disorder-‐ not able to form many social relationships; doesn’t have warm feelings for others. • Schizotypal personality disorder-‐ shows social deficits and ways of thinking and communicating that resemble that of schizophrenia. • Paranoid personality disorder-‐ shows suspiciousness of others and doesn’t trust people and is prone to jealousy • Histrionic personality disorder-‐ overly dramatic, exaggerates their emotions, seeks attention. • Narcissistic personality disorder-‐ sense of self-‐importance, a sense of entitlement, and an excessive need for attention or admiration. • Borderline personality disorder-‐ instability in social relationships, self-‐ image, and emotional functioning. • Antisocial personality disorder-‐ impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior Eating Disorders Eating disorders are severe disturbances in eating behavior that are characterized by having weight concerns and unhealthy methods to controlling weight. • Anorexia nervosa-‐ having an intense fear of gaining weight, and using dangerous methods to lose weight. There are two types: restricting (starvation) and binge eating/purging (vomiting after meals). People who suffer from this are never satisfied with their body image. The only thing that makes them happy is to lose more weight, even if they are already very thin. • Bulimia nervosa-‐ involves out-‐of-‐control eating, with is then followed by vomiting, fasting, excessive exercising, or abuse of laxatives. Usually this is carried out in secret and followed by feelings of guilt. These victims are more likely to cooperate with treatment rather than victims of anorexia nervosa. • Binge-‐eating disorder-‐ distress induced eating that is not followed by purging or fasting. Victims of this are typically overweight. Their eating is often triggered by stress. There are many suspected causes of eating disorders: • Genetic vulnerability-‐ doesn’t have as big of an impact here as it does for other disorders. • Personality factors-‐ certain personality traits increase the likelihood of developing an eating disorder. For anorexia they tend to be rigid, obsessive, and restrained. For bulimia they tend to be impulsive, and sensitive. • Cultural values-‐ the pressure on women to be thin from pop culture and other things like that can bring about eating disorders. • The role of the family-‐ if a mother is constantly obsessing about weight, or saying that you can never be too thin, this can have the same affect that pop culture has on eating disorders. • Cognitive factors-‐ victims of eating disorders have disturbed thinking. Personal Application-‐ Understanding Psychological Disorders and the Law • Insanity is the legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of a mental illness. • This is important in the courtroom because criminal acts must be intentional. Someone who is insane cannot appreciate the significance of what they’re doing. • Many times people try to use this to their defense. • Competency is a defendant’s capacity to stand trial-‐ they must be able to understand the nature and purpose of the legal proceedings and be able to assist their attorney. • Involuntary commitment is when people are hospitalized against their will.