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PSYC 2010- Chapter 14 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 14 Notes Psyc 2010-003

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Morgan Dimery

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These notes cover the information that comes from the abnormal behavior section of the knowledge checklist. This stuff will be on our exam coming up on Tuesday!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter  14     Psychological  Disorders     The  medical  model  says  that  it  is  acceptable  to  think  of  abnormal  behavior  as  a   disease.  It  still  has  a  very  strong  influence  today.  The  medical  model  improved  the   way  that  patients  with  disease  were  treated.  Now  people  think  that  this  term  has   been  overused  and  labels  people  in  a  derogatory  way.       It  is  hard  to  define  abnormal  because  it  is  situational  and  it  does  not  have  a  clear   breaking  point.  Things  that  are  abnormal  are  not  culturally  accepted,  statistically   uncommon,  cause  distress,  and  cause  dysfunction.  People  who  deviate  from  what  is   considered  normal  in  the  culture  they  live  in  are  considered  abnormal.  Whenever   something  affects  one’s  social  or  occupational  functioning  it  is  considered  abnormal.   Whenever  one  describes  their  state  to  be  in  extreme  distress,  their  behavior  is   considered  abnormal.       The  Diagnostic  and  Statistical  Manual  of  Mental  Disorders  (DSM-­‐5,  most   current  edition)  talks  about  disorders  using  the  atheoretical  approach.  This  book  is   constantly  improving  overtime.  Using  this  manual  does  not  guarantee  a  correct   diagnosis.  According  to  this  manual  women  seem  to  be  more  likely  to  suffer  from   depression  and  anxiety  disorders  and  men  are  more  likely  to  suffer  from  antisocial   disorders  and  substance  abuse.  Researchers  who  have  a  strong  clinical  interest   would  probably  want  to  read  this  manual.  Critics  believe  that  this  manual  has  a  flaw   in  that  it  places  all  people  in  nonoverlapping  categories.  A  lot  of  mental  illnesses   share  characteristics,  so  critics  feel  like  this  is  not  accurate.  With  every  new  issue   that  has  been  published,  there  are  more  and  more  mental  illnesses  identified.  Critics   believe  that  too  much  emphasis  is  being  put  on  just  regular  everyday  problems.       Anxiety  Disorders   Generalized  anxiety  disorder  is  having  a  high  level  of  anxiety  that  is  not  tied  to  a   real  threat.  People  who  suffer  from  this  have  physical  symptoms  such  as  muscle   tension  and  diarrhea.  A  phobia  is  an  irrational  fear  of  an  object  or  situation  that   doesn’t  pose  any  real  danger.  A  social  phobia  is  when  someone  has  an  extreme  fear   of  certain  social  situations.  Phobias  hinder  everyday  life  for  people  who  suffer  from   them.  Agoraphobia  is  the  fear  of  going  out  into  public  places.  This  causes  some   people  to  be  confined  in  their  own  homes.  This  was  originally  said  to  be  a  type  of   phobia,  but  now  it  is  seen  to  be  associated  with  panic  disorder.  The  fear  comes  from   not  wanting  to  show  panic  in  public.  A  panic  disorder  is  when  someone  has   recurrent  attacks  of  extreme  anxiety.  They  occur  very  suddenly  and  unexpectedly.   Obsessive-­‐compulsive  disorder  (OCD)  is  having  persistent,  uncontrollable   thoughts  about  unwanted  material,  and  urges  to  engage  in  senseless  rituals.  There   are  two  parts  to  OCD.  The  first  is  the  obsessive  part,  this  is  having  constantly   recurring  thoughts  that  are  terrifying  and/or  upsetting.  They  just  slam  into  the   unconscious  unexpectedly.  The  other  part  is  the  compulsive  part.  This  involves   having  to  engage  in  little  rituals  or  behaviors.  Sometimes  these  two  parts  are   experienced  together,  and  other  times  they  are  just  separate  from  one  another.   Posttraumatic  stress  disorder  (PTSD)  occurs  sometimes  after  experiencing   psychological  disturbance  caused  by  a  major  traumatic  event.  Many  war  veterans   experience  this  after  they  get  home  from  the  war.  Some  symptoms  are  nightmares,   feeling  vulnerable,  and  feeling  angry  or  guilty.  The  DSM-­‐5  now  considers  OCD  and   PTSD  to  be  separate  from  all  other  anxiety  disorders.  There  are  biological  factors   that  cause  anxiety  disorders.  Twin  studies  have  been  done  to  show  that  there  is  a   genetic  deposition  to  anxiety  disorders.  There  has  also  been  research  done  showing   the  relationship  between  anxiety  disorders  and  neurochemical  activity  in  the  brain.   Anxiety  disorders  can  also  be  brought  on  by  conditioning  and  learning.  They  can  be   acquired  from  classical  conditioning  and  maintained  by  operant  learning.  There  are   some  cognitive  factors  that  influence  anxiety  disorders.  Certain  styles  of  thinking   make  a  person  more  vulnerable  to  anxiety  disorders.  People  who  misinterpret   harmless  situations  as  threatening,  focus  excessive  attention  on  perceived  threats,   and  choose  to  recall  information  that  is  threatening  tend  to  develop  anxiety   disorders.  Having  high  levels  of  stress  has  been  found  to  lead  to  an  anxiety  disorder.     Dissociative  Disorders   These  are  disorders  in  which  a  person  loses  contact  with  portions  of  their   consciousness  or  memory.  It  causes  them  to  lose  a  sense  of  identity.  Dissociative   amnesia  is  when  there  is  a  sudden  loss  of  memory  about  personal  information  that   is  too  extensive  to  be  considered  normal  forgetting.  Sometimes  these  memory  losses   can  occur  just  once,  or  multiple  times.  Dissociative  identity  disorder  (DID)  is   when  identity  is  disrupted  by  the  experience  of  two  or  more  largely  complete,  and   different  personalities.  This  used  to  be  called  multiple  personality  disorder.  This  is   sometimes  mistaken  for  schizophrenia,  which  is  very  different.  The  personalities   associated  with  DID  usually  are  unaware  of  each  other.  Transitions  between   personalities  can  be  very  sudden.  Usually  excessive  stress  is  the  cause  of  dissociative   disorders.  Other  causes  of  these  disorders  are  sort  of  obscure.  Sometimes  talking  to   therapists  or  fantasizing  can  lead  to  them.  Many  researchers  believe  that  it  has  to  do   with  traumatic  childhood  experiences.       Mood  Disorders   People  who  suffer  from  a  mood  disorder  have  severe  emotional  dysfunction.   People  with  these  disorders  can  still  achieve  great  things  because  they  can  be   episodic.  This  means  that  the  symptoms  of  the  disorder  can  come  and  go.  Major   depressive  disorder  is  when  a  person  experiences  persistent  feelings  of  sadness   and  despair.  The  person  will  also  show  a  loss  of  interest  in  things  that  used  to  be   enjoyable.  A  noticeable  feature  of  this  disorder  is  anhedonia.  This  is  the  diminished   feeling  to  experience  pleasure.  Bipolar  disorders  involve  having  both  a  depressed   and  a  manic  period.  A  manic  mood  is  the  opposite  of  a  depressed  mood.  The  person   is  overly  happy,  hyperactive,  and  makes  extravagant  plans.  Suicide  is  a  very  tragic   outcome  that  is  sometimes  associated  with  depression.  There  are  many  suspected   causes  of  these  disorders:   • Genetic  vulnerability-­‐  genetics  strongly  influence  the  chance  of  developing   a  mood  disorder.  Twin  studies  have  been  done  to  show  this.     • Neurochemical  and  neuroanatomical  factors-­‐  abnormal  levels  of   norepinephrine  and  serotonin  in  the  brain  have  been  associated  with  mood   disorders.  Having  low  levels  of  serotonin  seems  to  lead  to  a  mood  disorder.   Having  reduced  hippocampal  volume  has  been  found  to  lead  to  mood   disorders  also.     • Hormonal  factors-­‐  the  hypothalamic-­‐pituitary-­‐adrenocortical  (HPA)  is  a   pathway  for  different  hormones.  Having  overactivity  along  the  HPA  axis  has   been  found  to  be  associated  with  mood  disorders.  Elevated  levels  of  cortisol,   which  is  produced  by  the  HPA,  has  also  been  found  to  be  associated  with   mood  disorders.     • Cognitive  factors-­‐  the  development  of  mood  disorders  can  depend  on  how  a   person  views  setbacks  in  their  life.  It  has  also  been  found  that  people  who   dwell  in  their  depression  are  more  likely  to  go  through  it  for  a  longer  period   of  time.  The  sum  of  all  this  is  that  negative  thinking  influences  mood   disorders.     • Interpersonal  roots-­‐  social  difficulties  can  cause  people  to  develop  mood   disorders.  There  is  also  a  correlation  with  poor  social  skills  and  depression.     People  who  experience  depression  are  more  likely  to  experience  awkward,   or  frustrating  moments  with  friends  and  family.     • Stress-­‐  people  who  don’t  have  much  stress  in  their  lives  have  been  known  to   develop  depression,  so  this  does  not  seem  to  have  much  of  an  impact.  Also,   many  people  who  experience  a  lot  of  stress  never  develop  depression.       Schizophrenia   Schizophrenia  literally  means,  “split  mind.”  This  disorder  is  marked  by  delusions,   irrational  thoughts,  loss  of  adaptive  behavior,  distorted  perceptions  such  as   hallucinations,  and  disturbed  emotions.  This  disorder  brings  a  lot  of  havoc  to  the   victim’s  life.  Many  people  who  suffer  from  this  disorder  cannot  hold  a  job,  do  not   keep  up  their  personal  hygiene,  and  hear  voices  in  their  head.     • Delusions  and  irrational  thought-­‐  delusions  are  false  beliefs  that  are   maintained  even  though  they  are  clearly  out  of  touch  with  reality.  Victims   believe  that  their  private  thoughts  are  being  broadcasted  to  everyone,  and   that  their  thoughts  are  being  put  into  their  mind  against  their  will.  A  delusion   of  grandeur  is  when  people  believe  that  they  are  famous  or  important  when   they  really  aren’t.     • Loss  of  adaptive  behavior-­‐  this  is  the  deterioration  in  the  person’s  ability   to  work,  have  social  skills,  and  personal  care.     • Distorted  perception-­‐  hallucinations  are  sensory  perceptions  that  occur  in   the  absence  of  a  real,  external  stimulus  or  they  are  gross  distortions  of   perceptual  input.  This  could  also  be  hearing  voices  in  your  head.     • Disturbed  emotion-­‐  victims  show  little  emotional  responsiveness.  Others   might  show  inappropriate  emotional  responses.  The  four  subtypes  are   paranoid,  catatonic,  disorganized,  and  undifferentiated.     There  are  negative  symptoms  of  schizophrenia,  and  also  positive  symptoms.   Positive  symptoms  are  behaviors  that  are  in  excess,  and  negative  symptoms  are   behaviors  that  are  in  a  deficit.       Positive  symptoms  include:   • Delusions  of  persecution   • Auditory  hallucinations   • Delusions  of  being  controlled   • Derailment  of  thought     • Delusions  of  grandeur   • Bizarre  social,  sexual  behavior   • Delusions  of  thought  insertion   • Aggressive,  agitated  behavior   • Incoherent  thought     Negative  symptoms  include:   • Few  friendship  relationships   • Few  recreational  interests   • Lack  of  persistence  at  work  or  school   • Impaired  grooming  or  hygiene   • Paucity  of  expressive  gestures   • Social  inattentiveness   • Emotional  nonresponsiveness   • Inappropriate  emotion   • Poverty  of  speech     There  are  a  few  suspected  causes  for  these  disorders:   • Genetic  vulnerability-­‐  hereditary  factors  play  a  role  in  schizophrenia.  Twin   studies  have  been  done  to  show  this.     • Neurochemical  factors-­‐  excess  dopamine  activity  has  been  associated  with   schizophrenia.  Marijuana  use  in  the  adolescent  years  may  precipitate   schizophrenia  in  people  who  have  genetic  vulnerability  for  it.  Some  people   think  that  it  is  actually  schizophrenia  that  causes  cannabis  use.     • Abnormal  brain  structures-­‐  enlarged  brain  ventricles  have  been  found  to   be  associated  with  schizophrenia.     • Neurodevelopmental  hypothesis-­‐  this  states  that  schizophrenia  is  caused   in  part  by  various  disruptions  in  the  normal  maturational  process  of  the   brain  before  or  at  birth.  Damage  to  the  brain  during  important  prenatal   stages  of  development  could  bring  on  schizophrenia.     • Expressed  emotion-­‐  this  is  the  degree  to  which  a  relative  of  a  schizophrenic   patient  displays  highly  critical  or  emotionally  overinvolved  attitudes  toward   the  patient.  Resentment  towards  the  patient  would  not  help  the  disorder  but   being  patient  would  help  it.     • Stress-­‐  High  stress  can  make  a  person  more  vulnerable  to  the  disorder.   Autism  Spectrums  Disorders   Autism,  or  autism  spectrum  disorder  (ASD)  is  a  profound  impairment  of  social   interaction  and  communication.  There  also  are  severely  restricted  interests  and   activities  that  are  usually  noticeable  by  the  age  of  3.  One  main  feature  of  this  is  the   child’s  lack  of  interest  in  people.  Verbal  communication  can  be  greatly  impaired.   Asperger’s  disorder  is  milder  form  of  autism.  It  used  to  be  thought  that  bad  parenting   caused  autism.  Now  this  isn’t  accepted  and  it  is  said  that  autism  has  a  biological   origin.  Twin  studies  and  family  studies  have  been  done  that  show  how  genetic   factors  influence  autism.  Another  cause  is  brain  enlargement  around  age  2.  Another   suspected  cause  is  that  the  mercury  used  in  some  vaccines  for  children  can  bring   about  autism.         Personality  Disorders   This  is  a  class  of  disorders  that  are  characterized  by  extreme,  inflexible  personality   traits  that  cause  subjective  distress  or  impaired  social  and  occupational  functioning.   There  are  10  disorders  under  the  personality  disorder  category:   • Avoidant  personality  disorder-­‐  very  sensitive  to  rejection,  humiliation,   shame,  socially  withdrawn  even  they  want  to  be  accepted  by  others.   • Dependent  personality  disorder-­‐  lacking  in  self-­‐reliance  and  self-­‐esteem.   Allows  others  to  make  decisions  for  them.     • Obsessive-­‐compulsive  personality  disorder-­‐  has  to  have  organization,   rules,  and  schedules.  Very  serious  and  formal.     • Schizoid  personality  disorder-­‐  not  able  to  form  many  social  relationships;   doesn’t  have  warm  feelings  for  others.   • Schizotypal  personality  disorder-­‐  shows  social  deficits  and  ways  of   thinking  and  communicating  that  resemble  that  of  schizophrenia.   • Paranoid  personality  disorder-­‐  shows  suspiciousness  of  others  and  doesn’t   trust  people  and  is  prone  to  jealousy   • Histrionic  personality  disorder-­‐  overly  dramatic,  exaggerates  their   emotions,  seeks  attention.   • Narcissistic  personality  disorder-­‐  sense  of  self-­‐importance,  a  sense  of   entitlement,  and  an  excessive  need  for  attention  or  admiration.   • Borderline  personality  disorder-­‐  instability  in  social  relationships,  self-­‐ image,  and  emotional  functioning.   • Antisocial  personality  disorder-­‐  impulsive,  callous,  manipulative,   aggressive,  and  irresponsible  behavior     Eating  Disorders   Eating  disorders  are  severe  disturbances  in  eating  behavior  that  are  characterized   by  having  weight  concerns  and  unhealthy  methods  to  controlling  weight.     • Anorexia  nervosa-­‐  having  an  intense  fear  of  gaining  weight,  and  using   dangerous  methods  to  lose  weight.  There  are  two  types:  restricting   (starvation)  and  binge  eating/purging  (vomiting  after  meals).  People  who   suffer  from  this  are  never  satisfied  with  their  body  image.  The  only  thing  that   makes  them  happy  is  to  lose  more  weight,  even  if  they  are  already  very  thin.     • Bulimia  nervosa-­‐  involves  out-­‐of-­‐control  eating,  with  is  then  followed  by   vomiting,  fasting,  excessive  exercising,  or  abuse  of  laxatives.  Usually  this  is   carried  out  in  secret  and  followed  by  feelings  of  guilt.  These  victims  are  more   likely  to  cooperate  with  treatment  rather  than  victims  of  anorexia  nervosa.     • Binge-­‐eating  disorder-­‐  distress  induced  eating  that  is  not  followed  by   purging  or  fasting.  Victims  of  this  are  typically  overweight.  Their  eating  is   often  triggered  by  stress.   There  are  many  suspected  causes  of  eating  disorders:   • Genetic  vulnerability-­‐  doesn’t  have  as  big  of  an  impact  here  as  it  does  for   other  disorders.     • Personality  factors-­‐  certain  personality  traits  increase  the  likelihood  of   developing  an  eating  disorder.  For  anorexia  they  tend  to  be  rigid,  obsessive,   and  restrained.  For  bulimia  they  tend  to  be  impulsive,  and  sensitive.     • Cultural  values-­‐  the  pressure  on  women  to  be  thin  from  pop  culture  and   other  things  like  that  can  bring  about  eating  disorders.   • The  role  of  the  family-­‐  if  a  mother  is  constantly  obsessing  about  weight,  or   saying  that  you  can  never  be  too  thin,  this  can  have  the  same  affect  that  pop   culture  has  on  eating  disorders.   • Cognitive  factors-­‐  victims  of  eating  disorders  have  disturbed  thinking.       Personal  Application-­‐  Understanding  Psychological  Disorders  and  the  Law   • Insanity  is  the  legal  status  indicating  that  a  person  cannot  be  held   responsible  for  his  or  her  actions  because  of  a  mental  illness.     • This  is  important  in  the  courtroom  because  criminal  acts  must  be  intentional.   Someone  who  is  insane  cannot  appreciate  the  significance  of  what  they’re   doing.   • Many  times  people  try  to  use  this  to  their  defense.     • Competency  is  a  defendant’s  capacity  to  stand  trial-­‐  they  must  be  able  to   understand  the  nature  and  purpose  of  the  legal  proceedings  and  be  able  to   assist  their  attorney.     • Involuntary  commitment  is  when  people  are  hospitalized  against  their  will.    


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