Modern Europe Notes 9
Modern Europe Notes 9 HIST 3480
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub 03/30/16 “New Imperialism, 1870-1900 3 Causes White Man’s Burden Globalization Market Dependence Panama Canal, 1903 Spanish-American War, 1898 Cuba Platt Amendment Puerto Rico Guam Philippines Middle East Africa India 1876-79, 25 M 1896-1902, 33M IndoChina Dutch East Indies China Japan Russo-Japanese War, 1905.” 1 th -invention of tradition papers due on April 6 - tradition based economies were discussed in previous classed as Economies of Tradition -definition of Imperialism is “the policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic or political hegemony over political space or nations.” -great discourse over the causes of Imperialism: 1. economic competition (dominant countries of Europe, particularly in the west, rapid colonization produced new markets) – -industrial economies are making a lot of money in the west, opportunities, investments… -search for new raw materials 2. colonizing “zeal” -epitome of civilization, social reformers, greatness of the western system of functioning politically, culturally, morally, even with traditional values 1 All quotations are taken from the board of Professor Smith. -Explorers/Christian missionary endeavors -> traders -> mercantile interests turn to civilization ex. Rudyard Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden”, undermine the existing civilizations in favor of westernization and “civilized” ways 3. Competition of Land Acquisition -Africa, nearly complete European control except for a few countries -dominate areas from ththmother country - by the end of the 19 century, the U.S. is up-and-coming as far as westernization is concerned, Natives sent to awfully desecrated or useless lands, many privileged colonizers moving west -1787 and 1900, the U.S. government signs about 400 separate treaties -Panama Isthmus near Columbia 1900, U.S. messes with foreign Columbian affairs, and the Panamanians are recognized in 1903, Monroe Doctrine era, considers a new citizenship territory -Panama in recent years have enlarged for oil companies, given back to the people eventually -Spain, still has some colonies around the world, Cuba -1898, a ship called U.S.S. Maine explodes and sinks in the Cabana Harbor, over 100 die -increasingly industrious U.S. vs. Spain’s semi-monarchal 18 century -Cuba in 1898 is now an American protectorate – Platt Amendment, independent but do not get to run their own foreign policy -Guantanamo Bay – dirty -Puerto Rico - colony -Guam –U.S. military base, colony -Philippines – thought that they were going to gain autonomy after 1898 war, but they remain a colony until the mid-19 century -Teddy Roosevelt – essentially found those in the Philippine Islands to be far too ungovernable to govern themselves, and that they demanded U.S. intervention that ultimately led to a guerilla war -about 600,000 Pilipino casualties , essentially over by 1902 1898, U.S. officially annexes Hawaii, 1850’s Hawaii becomes independent -Middle East, outcome of the empire of the Ottomans, sadly cannot rely on defense, restructuring, both militarily and politically, maybe more so the question of territorially -Combustion Engine ~ late 19 century -Oil “Gold Mines” -British wanted to continue mercantile East Indies, 1869-1970’s Suez Canal, British shortened the distance of trading -Mozambique colonized since 1640’s, but most of the rest of African was colonized by the British, French, and Germans -the British end goal was to control all of East Africa (Rhodesia, Uganda, Sudan etc.) from Egypt to South Africa -French most of north/western -Germans have slices -Spain, etc. few parts controlled -Ethiopia and Liberia only ones free by the 1880’s -territorial barriers are not reflective of impeding geography and ethnic groups, arbitrarily -sort of based on powerful conquer disputes -Italy attacks Ethiopia in 1896 and fails miserably, tries again in 1935 -Africa has about 150 million people, almost the water’s land mass? -South America in some parts, China, small parts of Africa but clearly westernization is unavoidable -the British, French, Germans, etc. tried to go along with a colonization protocol -“peasant subsistence economies” of the primary occupation of the people of Africa are forced to play into mercantilism, losing land, power, market autonomy -“globalization” –long-term process (Columbus????) -parts of the demand are highlighted to increase profit, cash crops, British started moving into – -India around the end of the 16 century after the end of the 7 Years War -250 million people in India, after The Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 – India becomes a source of cheap grain, more cash crops and forced British labor, reason why the British are not as worried about their competition of success in international markets especially (Germany, U.S.) -especially regarding the ways in which these products were acquired in India made the cost some low -1876-79, 25 M Starve to Death 1896-1902, 33M Starve to Death -if the monsoon rains do not work out in their annual ways, then they will run out of food completely -British provincial report claimed that these people who were dying would have lacked the “prudential restraint” to sustain themselves, much like Malthus… let them die, much like Ireland -India is the #1 consumer of exports from Britain near the turn of the 20 th century -1895, British did not have to care for the people they were oppressing with trade imbalances… -IndoChina – Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam – enormous profit to the rest of the Dutch state -China has about too much territory for the Europeans to truly colonize beyond “influence”, China’s Beijing country less and less not corrupt -Open Door Policy – John Hays Secretary of State, wanted all Europeans to corral together to share their ridiculous amount of influence, China had to somewhat please the attempted colonizing -Japan successfully fought against European colonizing demands -Japanese high class decided to fix their independence by creating the Meiji Restoration – create their own outlines -new outline of “culture, market, economy” Westernized extends of forms and functioning politically, educationally, economically -at the end of the 19 century there were many oligopolies and monopolies – Mitsubishi -Zaibatsu – with all this self-imposed western influence, the Japanese began to almost take on their own “White Man’s Burden” -Korean peninsula was originally attacked in 19 century and dominated in 1905 -Russians are upset with the Japanese militarism -Manchuria was a conflicted state, Japanese enter through around the side of China and the Russo-Japanese War, Russians believed that they would dominate through superiority complex -1895 Japanese had already taken Formosa -Russians were heavily defeated (Russian Revolution of 1905 almost overthrows the Czar) -origin of Asian Nationalism, to dominate their countries and reclaim, then we must throw out all Europeans (especially by WWI) -non-Caucasians simply needed to follow western practices and discoveries to realistically compete… a mind set of origin 03/30/16 “Bismarck Triple Alliance, 1880s William II (1888-1918) Franco-Russian Alliance, 1894 1898, Navy 1904 1905 Triple Entente, 1907 Causes of WWI x5) Slavic Nationalism Austria-Hungary Serbia Russia Bosnia Sarasevo Crisis, June 28, 1914 “Black Hand” “Blank Check” WWI, 1914-18 Schlieffen Plan Trench Warfare 1915” -World War I is what is the catalyst of many WWI incidents -Otto Van Bismarck’s idea was to continuously unite Germany, France’s only real competition at the time of the late 1800’s -1880’s – Bismarck arranges the “Triple Alliance” between Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy -wasn’t interested in colonies, his goal was to build infrastructural industrialization -new German empire, 1888 William II (1888-1918), Bismarck has qualms in his older years and gets fired William II (1888-1918): believes in “divine right”, wants to compete with the imperialists -Grandmother is Queen Victoria -Franco-Russian Alliance 1884, would put Germany in the midst of a two-front war, and since William II was not with the goals of Bismarck, he was able to create an alliance that bridged the governmental royal monarchy and the Russian post-feudal Czar state -1890’s the Russians are drawn by the promise of industrialization to become political “friends” with French -because of this alliance, the people of this treaty are less incline to feel that a WWI is going to happen, except for the fact that the British were not in anyone’s realm -1898, British wanted to focus on continuing the maintenance of their 2x as big of a navy as everyone else’s, Germans built multiples of what the British create (steel navy ships of unprecedented and sturdy size) -1904, the British/French informal alliance is brewing -1905, the Russo-Japanese War the Russian “government” is nearly almost overthrown in 1905 -> leads the British to think that the Russians are now almost incapable of conquest --yet, the British see Russia as caught up in the powerful boasting conflicts of Germany thus producing the Triple Entente, 1907 and Germany is now afraid of this conglomeration of power and history -Triple Alliance (Germany (disorganized), Austria (rural)) so this is a distressing action of the Triple Entente -Causes of WWI: 1.“The New Imperialism” in Africa is altering the landscape of politics 2. The German industrial complex nearly parallels British fears at this point 3. The ground militias are becoming increasingly competitive (Russia and Germany have about 2 million men now, even small nations in Southern Europe have ~400,000 men in their armies) 4. This was a war expected to be a type of militaristic evolution of weeding out the incompetent and leading to a survival of political alliances 5. South Eastern European Slavic Nationalism -Austria-Hungary is nearly a pre-industrial society still, duel-monarchal heavy influences of the lands of Hungary and Austria in a way that the lowest class Slavic people are oppressed -Serbia is a central power in south eastern Europe that is missing access to the see but is considered a nation that is depended on in this random country -Austrian did not want Serbia to be wildly powerful on the brink of this worldwide collision -Austria annexes Serbs, Muslims (1908) – and thus the Serbians do not have access to the Sea -Albanian kingdom was created around this 1908 time, completely denying Serbia to access to the seas by 1911 -Russians at the time said that they should definitely protect the Slavic people -Sarasevo Crisis, June 28, 1914, The Heir-Apparent Throne was assassinated – Archduke Franz Ferdinand -Austrians take this as an opportunity to spread their distain and they were scared when – Serbian gunman, part of the “Black Hand” assassinated -Austrians want to take this as a moment to teach a lesson to Serbians disorganized anarchic to switch this to order -Serbians decide to take this as an opportunity to try to reclaim order -July 1928, Austria vs. Serbia official becomes a war -Russians were allies with the Slavs (in Serbia) and decided they were going to protect these people, but then they decide that they really will take on the initiativerdo fight, and Germany decides then to build up armaments in Berlin -August 3 , Germany vs. France official war -Schlieven Plan (General Von Schlieven) to say that the top commanders would contain the Russians on one side while utterly making France surrender in a matter of 6 weeks -British see this as a threat when the 78 divisions go through Belgium, France is ringing to alarms for help to protect Paris, the Austrians also are taking aim at Berlin and have sent their outraged military and then the military units that were sent out to France were recalled -Paris can literally almost experience the war as the Germans arrive -yet, ultimately, the western European war becomes stagnant (trenches in the Alps, etc. that are maybe 30 feet deep, many died on the way to creating, living, defending, fighting in these trenches) -the “Machine Gun” takes over the western world (blows up many areas, so the attempt is to destroy these massive threats but it is almost impossible) -~1916 the Germans develop the tank – more utilized for transportation, especially dangerous and test-drivey -poison gas, without much aim would have the potential to kill others even in your own infantry -“By-Planes”, bombing with them was not very treacherous but then again, many smaller bombs were utilized in the trenches -each side wanted to defeat the trenches side and reach a major city -back in the east… -the Germans and Austrians attacked the Russians/Austrians and then moved into the Ukrainian southeastern smaller powers -the Germans are still in this war in a way that even though they have asserted their power and dominance it is somewhat a futile victory at any turn -Somme, July -1915 British army is the British civilian army, the British and the French take 7 miles of armaments to keep themselves safe, destroying many German army postings in an effort to tire the Germans to the point where they are no longer a threat in the East -1/2 trenches to prevent -Germans might have run out of room, but they were still there after the 7 mile-long week-long “No Man’s Land” trench invasion, and the Germans still had ammo -After the first day, there was 60,000 British Casualties – nationalistic, world- wide suicide begins to appear -French and British 600,000 and the Germans lose about 500,000 men -turning -April 1917, The U.S. enters the War – Germany was shipping Atlantic shipping “U-Boats” and thus there was obviously some understanding of the actual smuggling of what was happening to those in Eastern Europe -The Czar tries to plead to the people, to the powers, and becomes a people’s propaganda figurehead to those who had information about how Russia did not even have enough ammo or guns and “pick up guns” instead?! -Nov. 9, 1918 – Russian Revolution -DUMA = Russian legislature, is discredited in 1917, Lenin and Stalin and the Bolsheviks decide to overthrow the government and seize power, claim that this is not a war for the common people -March, 1918 – Russia claims peaceful surrender with Germany -French, British, Americans cross their enemy’s lines consistently until Germany is pushed back into their own land -However, the problem with this action is that German’s internal functioning is nearly collapsed – rebels, poor economy, etc. -Emperor William II abdicates his right to the throne, and thus the SPD (Social Democratic Party) government decides to sign the Armistice on November 11, 1918, as well as to begin to provisionally run the country -army is free to protest this confusing treaty of peace that honestly sounds ambiguous