Week 13: March 28th – April 3rd: Class, Dialect, Ethnicity, Race - Language and Culture
Week 13: March 28th – April 3rd: Class, Dialect, Ethnicity, Race - Language and Culture ANT3620
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3620 at University of Florida taught by Sean King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Language and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Monday, March 28, 2016 Symbolic Capital Distribution of social prestige. Kim Kardashian has a lot of capital on her Instagram and Twitter. Anger, Gender, Language Shift — Kulick Axiom: any discourse/thought/norm about emotion is implicitly also about gender Two speech genres analyzed to understand how discourses of gender, knowledge and being reinforce each other through linguistic practice. Language Ideology Kros: “anger”; it is culturally stereotypically feminine “Men’s oratories”: spoken in or around men’s house; o Downplay conflict and reframed disputes to achieve harmony Local knowledge semantically bound to ideas of danger and hazard e.g. magic chants, agriculture, men’s cults o Their language likewise privileges ambiguity with hidden meanings. Anger Anger is linked with danger having angry thoughts produces a “rot” within a person If anger is voiced or acted on, ancestral spirits sought to correct negative behavior o Correct their hed social being Women stereotyped as practitioners of kros o Self-fulfilling prophecy internalized but not explicitly. Anger and Orality Oratories considered a male-only practice When men discuss anger explicitly, it is indexical to negatively perceived phenomena o The anger must be “revealed” to correct the cosmic imbalance with the ancestors. Men re-contextualized speech in a socially “proper way” to downplay that there is even a problem. Relationality of: Men, Women, Anger Women publicly display their kros without re-concealing it through proper language practice Anger exposes a rot into village life that could potentially disrupt ancestral happenings. Men and women’s practices of anger are inverted: o Within private dwellings/within public men’s houses. o Oratories are sympathetic constructions/kroses are accusative declarations. Language Shift/Death Symbolic relationships and linguistics practices re-enforce ideas of hed, kros, femininity and Taiap Ways of talking about modernity and creating a better modern village use Tok Pisin terms and syntactical rules. Old language faces extinction Race, Ethnicity and Language Defining Race Jane Hill’s “folk theory of race” o Basic category of biology in which people fit AAA: physical traits inherited independently “There facts render any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations both arbitrary and subjective.” Defining Race — Beginnings of Color Blumenback in the late 1700’s Formulated 5 different races of the world based on craniometry Believed in mono-genist “degeneration” theory Color typology to racial theory still in use today! “Race” as a concept is real, but as biological reality, remains to be seen Race should be viewed as cultural perceptions of others a theory of person for Other subjects Example: “whiteness” o Many groups now considered white were not always o Irish, Germans, Italians, etc. o Franklin: “swarthy” Swedes Race through Time “Race” is a concept: fluid and changeable through time Sarah Hengen: o Research in Nepal o Mongol National Organization (MNO) o Tried to fight ruling religious casts using outdated racial typology o Recast national and ethnicities, even though not technically true. Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Recap Covered anger, gender and language in Gapun Defining race o Variation vs. explanation o Does “one trait [looks] rule them all”? No Race vs. Ethnicity Some researchers critically split “race” and “ETHNICITY” Bonnie Urciuoli: o Research on NYC Puerto Rican community o Racial discourses: “frame group origin in natural terms” o Ethnic discourses: “frame group origin in cultural terms” o Racialized people considered dangerous, disorderly, chaotic o Ethnic people considered quaint, safe, orderly. o Speaking with an accent linguistically marks someone as dangerous, disorderly, unsafe. African American English (AAE) Linguistic system with rules governing: morphology, phonology, syntax. Presence of geographic dialects and absencelinguistic variation! Many can code-switch between linguistic registers to fit social context Scholars still disagree on statues of AAE as language or dialect o No matter what: has as much systematicity as other languages. Some Major Grammar/Rules of AAE Invariant or habitual “be” o “He be singing” vs “He is always singing” Copula deletion o “She happy” vs. “She is happy” Double negatives o “I can’t not go out tonight” vs. “I can go out tonight” o Anglo-Saxon bias: “rationality”, mathematics, modernization. Reduction of final consonants o Rule!: voiced and voiceless finals o Final consonant dropped only if preceded by a voiced consonant. Dump, belt, sink vs. ol’ (old), lef’ (left) “Ask” vs. “Aks” o Popularity considered to be the worst of errors by AAE speakers. o History happening for centuries in England o England: Didn’t historically index blackness Came to represent lower social classes after Revolution Speaking differently is not tied to cognitive competency! does not index intelligence, just difference. Racism in Linguistic Practice Queer theory and racism: racist ideas can emerge in conversation/practice Valentina Pagliai: o Research how people react to racist comments in conversation Recorded conversations about immigrants in barber shop in Tuscany, Italy. o Spiral effect: “occurs because when speakers receive a positive reception for their mildly negative comments, they are emboldened to make more blatantly negative and eventually outright racist remarks. Racism, Language Ideologies, Practice Psychosomatic tendencies of race and learning Ruben and Smith conducted match-guise tests in a classroom setting: o 4-minute lecture recorded by a white woman o Half class shown video of her with her voice, other half shown video of East Asian woman with original white woman’s voice o Students in Asian group tended to report the woman had an accent and did worse on comprehension of lecture materials. Ebonics, Language and Power – Long The role of “ebonics” in U.S. educational system Coined by Robert Williams in a 1973 conference: o “refers to the study of the language of black people in all its cultural uniqueness.” Linguistic studies in AAE: o Classroom practices and language ideologiesasymmetric dualism Language and Social Identity AAE not a marker of “blackness” variation and cross-ethic diffusion. o Southeast Asian, Hawaiians, working-class white and Latino Symbolic relationality: resistance o Suppression of Hawaiian o Suppression of Basque in fascist Spain AAE language ideology, emic perspective: resistive politics to perceived eradication, or at least, change of identity. Oakland School Board Resolution Flashpoint of “linguicism” came in 1997 in Oakland, California o 53% of student K-12 population was black, with 47% Asian & Latino, less than 1% white. Oakland School Board attempted to rectify terrible conditions teach classes in a different register It was NOT to “teach Ebonics”, BUT to help facilitate learning to increase language skills and others. Reactions Support from the Linguistic Society of America met in Chicago to specially address this issue Department of Education rejected the proposal based on linguistic grounds AAE not a “separate language” Even popular black culturalists — Maya Angelou and Jesse Jackson — condemned the proposal, while less popular black figures’ opinions marginalized. Reactions and New Relationship Oakland proposal became platform for larger “English-only” movement. o Other languages (mainly Spanish) also demonized alongside AAE Oakland School Board Reaction: o Re-stated that AAE had limited genetic relationship to West African languages (correct) o Stated it is not a dialect of English (incorrect) o Stated ultimately goal was to impart Standard English on the Students. Nature vs. Nurture & Education Follows Chomsky’s view of language as innately cognitive and universal o But, also sees the “language environment” as pivotal in formulating social identity Certain access to power is predicated in language: o Submersion: standard dialect in classrooms o Assimilation: collects subaltern communities together to create uniformity o Immersion: programs designed to immerse one in a language and its ideologies. Conclusions and Questions Bilingual education programs see huge results (Hawaii’s KEEP program, Canada’s French program) o Learning-in-general and learning a language in particular share the same problems National unity discourses often downplay or outright try to destroy linguistic diversity in the sake of security Long’s proposition if the world is only going to increase in its multi- cultural and multi-linguistic state, how do we deal with this in an educational setting? Friday, April 1, 2016 Recap Spiral effect case study: Italian barber shop talk about immigrants Ruben and Smith case study: white female voice over on East Asian female actor Oakland School Board Resolution o 1997 Ebonics controversy o Teaching in vernacular o What were they attempting to do/not do? RSA Animate: Language as a Window into Human Nature Indirect Speech Act Veiling Relationship Types (x3) o Dominance (Hierarchy in primates) o Communality (Share & share alike (kin selection and mutualism) o Reciprocity (Exchanges of good and services, reciprocal altruism) – Two ways Mutual Knowledge Shared understanding, we are all in the same page. Language has to convey some content and it has to negotiate a relationship type the solution is to use language at 2 levels Innuendos provide individual knowledge and direct speech provides mutual knowledge. “Word-Sound-Power”: Rastafarian Cosmology Rastafarianism: not what you think it is o Syncretic Christian and West African religious system that began in Jamaica o Believe Haile Salassei, last Ethiopian monarch, was the next Christian Messiah o Millenarian movement00> bring about a new age for African diasporic peoples around the world. Historical Context(s) Jamaica was the crown jewel of British Caribbean landholdings o Both plantation owners and newly imported African slaves spoke the local dialect o British political elites in Jamaica still held language ideology of British accent as “normal” In the 1930’s mass political unrest against British domination began with street preachers. o Pan-African Movement in the 60s and 70s catapulted mutual knowledge of black suppression across the globe. Rastafarian Morpho-Syntax Morpho-syntactics: how a language constructs its words ans sentences Context of communication: o Part of “speaking Rastafarian” is not in the language itself, but in what context it is found in. o i.e. it is about its practice in reference to word construction o Rastafarian speech explicitly deconstructs English and African words are re-arranges them. Word-sound-power is: o Linguistic construct that expresses local ideas of identity, agency and speech. o Theory of person! Research and Method Interviewed “Bongo”, a Jamaican man in the late 60’s who recently became “Dread” but famous for good oratory skills. Because English was language of subjugators, it is purposefully “busted” to show resistive practices “Up” fill morphologies: o Any word with a prefix that had symbolic similarities to negative things were overtly changed to create a positive relationship Example: English word “dedicate” —pronounced “DEAD- icate — is changed to “livicate” Example: English word “oppression” begins with an “o” — linked with word “over” and power over — is changed to “down-press” Word-World Production Up-fill morphology defining characteristic of Rastafarian linguistics and identity Histories of oppression linguistically renegotiated and resisted The world-sound-power of Rastafarian speech further promotes their world view of a Pan-African religious unifier