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World History 1020, Week Seven Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Seven Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Seven Notes
Liv Taylor
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About this Document

This further covers the expansion of imperialism and nation building in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
Imperialism, Nation Building, World History
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Week  of  March  28,  2016  (Week  Seven)   Dr.  David  Cater   World  History  II       Pressures  of  Expansion  in  Japan,  Russia,  and  China  (WTWA  629-­‐635)   Nations  and  Empires  (1850-­‐1914)     -­‐  Expansion  was  not  just  a  Western  phenomenon;  the  Japanese  also  went  through   transformation  and  expansion   -­‐  With  the  Meiji  Restoration  in  the  late  19  century,  Japan  became  a  modern  nation-­‐ state   -­‐  Early  17  century  to  late  19  century  Japan  was  in  isolation  (250  years  of   isolation)   -­‐  Commodore  Perry  shows  up  with  a  small  fleet  of  U.S.  steamships  as  a  show  of  force   and  to  tell  the  Japanese  to  respond  favorably  to  their  trading  terms  (the  U.S.  is   leading  imperialism  at  this  time)   -­‐  In  1868,  elites  toppled  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate  and  the  new  government   developed  a  model  of  political  community  that  stressed  unity  and  superiority   -­‐  Leading  to  the  Meiji  Constitution  which  was  modeled  on  that  of  Germany   -­‐  Portuguese  (Catholic)  came  to  Japan  as  Christian  missionaries  and  tensions  arose   between  Japanese  tradition  and  Christianity  and  furthermore  between  Catholicism   and  Protestantism   -­‐  Due  to  these  conflicts,  the  Japanese  tried  to  get  rid  of  the  Christian  missionaries     -­‐  Under  the  new  Japanese  government,  he  Shogun  is  more  powerful  than  emperor     -­‐  It  also  creates  major  problems  for  cash  flow  because  they  aren’t  taxing  and  Japan   recognizes  Korean  sovereignty     Sino-­‐Japanese  war   -­‐  Economic  development  grew     -­‐  Land  reform  allowed  peasants  to  become  small  landlords  therefore  peasants   improved  their  productivity   -­‐  The  government  also  created  a  uniform  currency  constructed  by  a  postal  system,   loads  telegraph  lines,  formed  foreign  trade  associated,  launched  savings  and  export   campaigns,  built  railroads  and  hired  foreign  consultants  in  an  attempt  to  flatten  out   “big”  geography   -­‐  Eventually,  the  government  sold  many  of  these  valuable  enterprises  to  individuals,   which  helped  create  powerful  family  holding  businesses  (i.e.  Mitsubishi)   -­‐  Expansion  offered  more  markets  for  this  modernizing  economy  and  a  chance  to   assert  the  country’s  “greatness”   -­‐  In  1972  the  Japanese  took  over  the  Ryukyus  kingdom   -­‐  In  1876  they  recognize  Korea  as  an  independent  state  angering  China,  which   considered  China  a  “sphere  of  influence”   -­‐  In  1894-­‐1895  they  defeated  the  Chinese  in  the  he  Sino-­‐Japanese  War  and  China   gave  up  Taiwan  to  Japan,  and  in  1910  Japan  annexed  Korea   -­‐  The  Japanese  viewed  colonial  people  as  inferiors,  yet  they  expected  colonies  to   serve  the  economic  interests  of  Japan  (in  particular,  the  developed  rice  production   for  export  to  Japan)   -­‐  Taiwan  also  exported  sugar  to  the  rest  of  Asia       Russian  Transformation  and  Expansion   -­‐  Russia  embarked  on  expansion  in  the  late  nineteenth  century  largely  as  a  defense   against  the  rest  of  imperialism   -­‐  At  first  this  expansion  did  not  go  well  but  it  led  to  the  abolition  of  serfdom     -­‐  In  the  1860’s,  Russia  conquered  Turkestan  and  Russians  soon  migrated  into  the   Central   -­‐  Russia  becomes  extremely  diverse  and  handles  this  by  focusing  on  territories  and   linking  big  cities  to  make  it  seem  smaller   -­‐  They  also  adopt  the  Western  frontier  idea  of  mass  railroads  and  sell  Alaska  to  the   U.S.   -­‐  They  adopt  a  policy  of  “Russificiation”  or  use  of  the  Russian  language  and   promotion  of  Russian  culture       China  Under  Pressure     -­‐  The  Chinese  were  slower  than  the  Russians  and  the  Japanese  to  emulate  European   models  if  industrialism  and  imperialism   -­‐  Historically,  they  were  more  worried  about  internal  revolts  and  threats  from  their   northern  border     -­‐  But  they  eventually  adopt  western  learning  and  skills         -­‐  The  concept  of  orientalism  begins  through  the  emergence  in  Asian  culture  by   imperialism  and  colonialism   -­‐  “The  way  of  looking  at  the  other”  (imperialism  creates  a  sense  of  exoticism)   -­‐  Cuba  exchanges  problematic  relationship  with  Spain  for  problematic  relationship   with  the  U.S.     -­‐  Between  1850  and  1914  the  majority  of  the  world  population  in  empires  not   nation-­‐states,  still,  nationalism  spread  during  this  time   -­‐  Strengthening  state  power  went  hand  in  hand  with  reordering  the  polity  around   “the  nation”   -­‐  In  the  second  half  of  the  century,  nation  building  had  allowed  some  states  to   extend  their  powers  beyond  national  borders  because  colonization  was  integral  to   nation  building  in  many  societies   -­‐  Brazil,  Japan  and  the  U.S.  all  integrated  important  provinces,  but  many  argue  that   the  U.S.  was  a  main  imperialist  nation  while  others  argue  that  what  we  did  with   Guam,  the  Philippines,  etc.  was  different  than  imperialism   -­‐  Others  did  not  attempt  to  integrate  their  colonies  into  the  nation  such  as  Britain   with  India  and  Holland  with  Indonesia   -­‐  Ideologies  of  race  and  empires  became  woven  into  this   -­‐  By  1900  three  new  world  powers  (U.S.,  Germany  and  Japan)  had  emerged   -­‐  Russia  was  also  powerful  but  it  rested  on  a  weak  foundation   -­‐  The  emergence  of  nation  states  and  colonies  allowed  an  effective  framework  for   integrating  the  global  economy,  therefore,  industrialism  spread   -­‐  Labor  capital  and  commodities     -­‐  Nations  traded  between  their  own  colonies  but  not  outside  of  it,  which  made  WWI   easier  because  no  one  established  outside  relationships  of  trade   -­‐  Ironically,  imperialism  spread  the  idea  of  nationalism  to  colonial  subjects   -­‐  Colonial  subjects  often  used  the  rhetoric  of  nationalism  to  assert  their  autonomy   Filipinos  used  Jefferson’s  Declaration  of  Independence  to  oppose  American  invaders   just  like  Ho  Chi  Minh  of  Vietnam  used  Declaration  of  Independence  to  break  away   from  France       An  Unsettled  World  (WTWA  Chapter  18)   (1890-­‐1914)     Progress,  Upheaval  and  Movement   -­‐  Some  benefited  from  changes  in  the  years  before  1914,  others  faced  social  and   economic  frustration     -­‐  In  Europe  and  the  U.S.,  left  wing  radicals  and  middle  class  reformers  sought   political  and  social  change   -­‐  In  places  colonized  by  Europe  and  the  United  states,  resentment  grew  toward   colonial  rulers  and  indigenous  collaborators   -­‐  Revolutions  in  China,  Mexico  and  Russia  toppled  autocratic  regimes   -­‐  One  side  sees  the  benefits  of  imperialism  and  the  other  focuses  on  the  negatives  of   it     On  the  positive  side,  new  industries  drove  economic  growth  and  urbanization     -­‐  But  on  the  other  hand,  growing  capitalism  led  to  rising  inequalities     -­‐  Industrialization  changed  how  and  where  people  worked  which  resulted  in  a   widespread  rural  to  urban  migration   -­‐  The  rise  of  cities  like  Atlanta  and  Charlotte  is  a  result  of  rural  to  urban  migration   because  people  always  follow  the  promise  of  work     -­‐  Cities  gained  magnificent  new  cultural  institutions  such  as  museums  and  libraries   which  at  least  a  minority  of  residents  had  the  leisure  time  and  disposable  income  to   enjoy   -­‐  We  forget  that  to  migrate  is  a  huge  decision,  for  example,  the  Irish  had  wakes  when   they  sent  their  children  off  to  America  because  they  were  sure  they  would  never  see   them  again   -­‐  Cities  housed  millions  in  crowded,  diseased-­‐ridden  slums   -­‐  Conflicts  between  rich  and  poor  abounded  particularly  when  city  administrations   tried  to  improve  of  beautify  urban  blight   -­‐  There  were  sanitation  issues  in  all  cities,  for  example,  in  New  York  it  was  people’s   jobs  to  clean  up  horse  carcasses  and  there  was  hardly  any  plumbing  –     -­‐  European  and  North  American  intellectuals  worried  about  the  world’s  future,  so   they  wrote  about  the  downside  of  progress     -­‐  A  generation  of  artists,  writers  and  scientists  broke  with  convention  and  became   labeled  as  modernists     -­‐  Modernists  found  a  new  (and  darker)  way  of  seeing  the  world  and  their  ideas   circulated  the  globe   -­‐  Mass  emigration  took  place  globally   -­‐  People  were  being  pushed  out  of  certain  areas  and  not  all  was  voluntary  (i.e.  the   Jews)   -­‐  Missionaries  were  drawn  to  other  places  as  an  to  opportunities  to  save  souls     -­‐  Economically,  people  were  also  seeking  opportunities   -­‐  Soldiers  were  being  encouraged  to  move  as  a  way  to  establish  imperialism  as   smaller  versions  of  the  mother  country   -­‐  Mine  workers  in  southern  Africa     -­‐  Male  migrants  initially  outnumbered  female,  but  eventually  evened  out    -­‐  Social  and  labor  problems  abounded  as  cities  tried  to  accommodate  to  growing   migrant  populations   -­‐  Male  dominated  areas  change  social  aspects  (prostitution,  etc.)   -­‐  There  was  undoubtedly  gender  disproportion  in  migratory  patterns   -­‐  When  women  start  migrating,  cities  boomed  and  led  to  the  idea  of  city  planning   -­‐  Urban  life  transformed  women’s  lives  i.e.  more  jobs  availiable,  increased  literacy   and  cheaper  reading  materials,  ready-­‐made  clothes  and  goods  allowed  women  more   leisure  time   -­‐  Male  population  worried  about  female  freedom,  which  fueled  modern  suffrage   movement     -­‐  There  were  very  few  restrictions  on  migration  until  1914  (U.S.  Chinese  Exclusion   Act  of  1892  and  National  Origins  Act  of  1924)   -­‐  In  migration,  certain  immigrants  are  less  desirable  based  on  race   -­‐  Imperial  control  comes  at  a  cost  (i.e.  uprisings)     Unrest  in  Africa   -­‐  The  Anglo-­‐Boer  War:  the  most  devastating  colonial  war   -­‐  The  cost  of  imperialism,  the  loss  British  lives  and  British  resources  brought  them   lower  and  lower  until  British  nationalism  takes  a  huge  blow  and  falls  beneath  the   U.S.,  Germany  and  Japan                


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