World History 1020, Week Seven Notes
World History 1020, Week Seven Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Week of March 28, 2016 (Week Seven) Dr. David Cater World History II Pressures of Expansion in Japan, Russia, and China (WTWA 629-‐635) Nations and Empires (1850-‐1914) -‐ Expansion was not just a Western phenomenon; the Japanese also went through transformation and expansion -‐ With the Meiji Restoration in the late 19 century, Japan became a modern nation-‐ state -‐ Early 17 century to late 19 century Japan was in isolation (250 years of isolation) -‐ Commodore Perry shows up with a small fleet of U.S. steamships as a show of force and to tell the Japanese to respond favorably to their trading terms (the U.S. is leading imperialism at this time) -‐ In 1868, elites toppled the Tokugawa Shogunate and the new government developed a model of political community that stressed unity and superiority -‐ Leading to the Meiji Constitution which was modeled on that of Germany -‐ Portuguese (Catholic) came to Japan as Christian missionaries and tensions arose between Japanese tradition and Christianity and furthermore between Catholicism and Protestantism -‐ Due to these conflicts, the Japanese tried to get rid of the Christian missionaries -‐ Under the new Japanese government, he Shogun is more powerful than emperor -‐ It also creates major problems for cash flow because they aren’t taxing and Japan recognizes Korean sovereignty Sino-‐Japanese war -‐ Economic development grew -‐ Land reform allowed peasants to become small landlords therefore peasants improved their productivity -‐ The government also created a uniform currency constructed by a postal system, loads telegraph lines, formed foreign trade associated, launched savings and export campaigns, built railroads and hired foreign consultants in an attempt to flatten out “big” geography -‐ Eventually, the government sold many of these valuable enterprises to individuals, which helped create powerful family holding businesses (i.e. Mitsubishi) -‐ Expansion offered more markets for this modernizing economy and a chance to assert the country’s “greatness” -‐ In 1972 the Japanese took over the Ryukyus kingdom -‐ In 1876 they recognize Korea as an independent state angering China, which considered China a “sphere of influence” -‐ In 1894-‐1895 they defeated the Chinese in the he Sino-‐Japanese War and China gave up Taiwan to Japan, and in 1910 Japan annexed Korea -‐ The Japanese viewed colonial people as inferiors, yet they expected colonies to serve the economic interests of Japan (in particular, the developed rice production for export to Japan) -‐ Taiwan also exported sugar to the rest of Asia Russian Transformation and Expansion -‐ Russia embarked on expansion in the late nineteenth century largely as a defense against the rest of imperialism -‐ At first this expansion did not go well but it led to the abolition of serfdom -‐ In the 1860’s, Russia conquered Turkestan and Russians soon migrated into the Central -‐ Russia becomes extremely diverse and handles this by focusing on territories and linking big cities to make it seem smaller -‐ They also adopt the Western frontier idea of mass railroads and sell Alaska to the U.S. -‐ They adopt a policy of “Russificiation” or use of the Russian language and promotion of Russian culture China Under Pressure -‐ The Chinese were slower than the Russians and the Japanese to emulate European models if industrialism and imperialism -‐ Historically, they were more worried about internal revolts and threats from their northern border -‐ But they eventually adopt western learning and skills -‐ The concept of orientalism begins through the emergence in Asian culture by imperialism and colonialism -‐ “The way of looking at the other” (imperialism creates a sense of exoticism) -‐ Cuba exchanges problematic relationship with Spain for problematic relationship with the U.S. -‐ Between 1850 and 1914 the majority of the world population in empires not nation-‐states, still, nationalism spread during this time -‐ Strengthening state power went hand in hand with reordering the polity around “the nation” -‐ In the second half of the century, nation building had allowed some states to extend their powers beyond national borders because colonization was integral to nation building in many societies -‐ Brazil, Japan and the U.S. all integrated important provinces, but many argue that the U.S. was a main imperialist nation while others argue that what we did with Guam, the Philippines, etc. was different than imperialism -‐ Others did not attempt to integrate their colonies into the nation such as Britain with India and Holland with Indonesia -‐ Ideologies of race and empires became woven into this -‐ By 1900 three new world powers (U.S., Germany and Japan) had emerged -‐ Russia was also powerful but it rested on a weak foundation -‐ The emergence of nation states and colonies allowed an effective framework for integrating the global economy, therefore, industrialism spread -‐ Labor capital and commodities -‐ Nations traded between their own colonies but not outside of it, which made WWI easier because no one established outside relationships of trade -‐ Ironically, imperialism spread the idea of nationalism to colonial subjects -‐ Colonial subjects often used the rhetoric of nationalism to assert their autonomy Filipinos used Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence to oppose American invaders just like Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam used Declaration of Independence to break away from France An Unsettled World (WTWA Chapter 18) (1890-‐1914) Progress, Upheaval and Movement -‐ Some benefited from changes in the years before 1914, others faced social and economic frustration -‐ In Europe and the U.S., left wing radicals and middle class reformers sought political and social change -‐ In places colonized by Europe and the United states, resentment grew toward colonial rulers and indigenous collaborators -‐ Revolutions in China, Mexico and Russia toppled autocratic regimes -‐ One side sees the benefits of imperialism and the other focuses on the negatives of it On the positive side, new industries drove economic growth and urbanization -‐ But on the other hand, growing capitalism led to rising inequalities -‐ Industrialization changed how and where people worked which resulted in a widespread rural to urban migration -‐ The rise of cities like Atlanta and Charlotte is a result of rural to urban migration because people always follow the promise of work -‐ Cities gained magnificent new cultural institutions such as museums and libraries which at least a minority of residents had the leisure time and disposable income to enjoy -‐ We forget that to migrate is a huge decision, for example, the Irish had wakes when they sent their children off to America because they were sure they would never see them again -‐ Cities housed millions in crowded, diseased-‐ridden slums -‐ Conflicts between rich and poor abounded particularly when city administrations tried to improve of beautify urban blight -‐ There were sanitation issues in all cities, for example, in New York it was people’s jobs to clean up horse carcasses and there was hardly any plumbing – -‐ European and North American intellectuals worried about the world’s future, so they wrote about the downside of progress -‐ A generation of artists, writers and scientists broke with convention and became labeled as modernists -‐ Modernists found a new (and darker) way of seeing the world and their ideas circulated the globe -‐ Mass emigration took place globally -‐ People were being pushed out of certain areas and not all was voluntary (i.e. the Jews) -‐ Missionaries were drawn to other places as an to opportunities to save souls -‐ Economically, people were also seeking opportunities -‐ Soldiers were being encouraged to move as a way to establish imperialism as smaller versions of the mother country -‐ Mine workers in southern Africa -‐ Male migrants initially outnumbered female, but eventually evened out -‐ Social and labor problems abounded as cities tried to accommodate to growing migrant populations -‐ Male dominated areas change social aspects (prostitution, etc.) -‐ There was undoubtedly gender disproportion in migratory patterns -‐ When women start migrating, cities boomed and led to the idea of city planning -‐ Urban life transformed women’s lives i.e. more jobs availiable, increased literacy and cheaper reading materials, ready-‐made clothes and goods allowed women more leisure time -‐ Male population worried about female freedom, which fueled modern suffrage movement -‐ There were very few restrictions on migration until 1914 (U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1892 and National Origins Act of 1924) -‐ In migration, certain immigrants are less desirable based on race -‐ Imperial control comes at a cost (i.e. uprisings) Unrest in Africa -‐ The Anglo-‐Boer War: the most devastating colonial war -‐ The cost of imperialism, the loss British lives and British resources brought them lower and lower until British nationalism takes a huge blow and falls beneath the U.S., Germany and Japan
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