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Fabian PSYC 1000: 30 March - 1 April Notes

by: Kayden McKenzie

Fabian PSYC 1000: 30 March - 1 April Notes PSYC 1010

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > Fabian PSYC 1000 30 March 1 April Notes
Kayden McKenzie

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About this Document

Ch 12 and Ch 14
Introductory Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
CH 12 Self-Control The ability to control impulses and delay gratification Uses brain energy With practice, we can improve our self-control Individual differences Marshmallow study: kids who resisted the temptation to eat marshmallows later had more success in school and socially Promoting Health: Social Support Having close relationships is associated with improved health and longevity Social support calms, reduces blood pressure and stress hormones Social support fosters a stronger immune system Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings Aerobic Exercise and Mental Health Aerobic exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia, and early death Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety, and improves the management of stress Lifestyle Modification Survivors of heart attacks – lifestyle modification Control group – diet, medication, and exercise advice Result: modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates Religious Involvement and Health Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active Healthy lifestyle behaviors, social support, hope for the future, feelings of acceptance, relaxed meditation of prayer CH 14: Social Psychology Attribution Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event Attribution theory – we explain others behavior with two types of attributions: situational and dispositional Fundamental attribution error – when we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality, we think a behavior demonstrates a trait, we tend to overemphasize dispositional and underemphasize situational Attitudes and Actions Attitudes affect our actions Public attitudes affect public policies Actions affect attitudes as well Foot-in-the-door phenomenon Start behaving in a way to support something Attitudes become more supportive Role Playing Even if we know it’s just pretending, we usually tend to adopt the attitudes of the role we are playing and become the role In arranged marriages, people often come to love the person they marry Actors say they lose themselves in their roles Participants in the Stanford prison study ended up breaking down after three days Cognitive Dissonance When our actions and our attitude clash Cognitive dissonance theory – we resolve dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions Conformity: Mimicry Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard Some mimicry is automatic – yawning, arm folding, adopting regional accents and grammar, empathetic shifts in mood, adopting coping style of parents and peers e.g. copycat school shootings, copycat suicides Conformity: Responding to Social Norms When we are with other people, our behavior may follow a social norm rather than following our own judgement Asch Conformity Studies – about one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with a group More Likely to Conform You are not fully committed to one set of beliefs or style of behavior Group is medium-sized and unanimous You admire the group’s status The group tries to make you feel incompetent, insecure, and closely watched Your culture encourages respect for norms Two types of social influence Normative social influence – going along with others in pursuit of social approval and avoiding rejection, clothing choices Informational social influence – going along with others because groups provide information, deciding which side of road to drive on Milgram’s Obedience Study How would people respond to direct commands? “Teacher” (real participant) shocking the “Learner” (fake participant) The majority of participants continued to obey until the end Increasing Obedience When orders are given by someone with authority, someone associated with a prestigious institution, someone standing close by When the “learner”/victim is in another room No role models for defiance Bad news – in war some people choose not to fight and kill but then obedience escalates and they even kill innocent people Good news – obedience can strengthen heroism, soldiers can risk or even sacrifice themselves (more so when under orders) Lessons from Conformity and Obedience Studies When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary people will say and do things that they never would have believed to do The real evil may be in the situation To look at a person committing harmful acts and assume that the person is cruel/evil would be to make the fundamental attribution error Social Facilitation Strengthened performance in the presence of others Increase motivation for those who are confident Social Loafing Hating group projects because others free-ride on your efforts The tendency of people in a group to show less effort Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint Group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group Polarization The beliefs and attitudes you bring to a group grow stronger and more polarized as you discuss them with like-minded others Groupthink In pursuit of social harmony and avoidance of open disagreement, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas Power of Individuals Committed individuals can sway the majority and make history


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