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ENV 1301: Week 12

by: Anna Frazier

ENV 1301: Week 12 ENV 1301

Anna Frazier
Baylor University
GPA 3.8

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Chapter 12
Exploring Environmental Issues
Dr. Larry Lehr
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENV 1301 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Larry Lehr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Exploring Environmental Issues in Environmental Science at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Sunday, March 27, 2016 Chapter 12 Notes ENV: Fresh Water, Oceans, and Coasts Terms - Fresh water – water that is relatively pure with few dissolved salts - Surface water– water located atop the earth’s surface - Groundwater—beneath the surface held within the pores in soil or rock - Aquifers – porous formations of rock, sand, or gravel that hold water - Water table–the upper limit of groundwater held in an aquifer - Runoff –water that falls from the sky as rain, emerges from the spring, or melts from snow or a glacier and then flows over the land surface - Watershed– The area of land drained by a river and all its tributaries (after a storm) - Floodplain – the region of land over which a river has historically wandered & periodically flows - Wetlands – systems in which the soil is saturated with water and which generally feature shallow standing water with ample vegetation - Currents– Vast river likes flows that move in the upper 400 meters of water, horizontally and for a great distances - Upwelling– The rising of deep, cold, dense water toward the circus; supports primary productivity - Downwellings– Warm surface water rich in salt gases is displaced downward, providing an influx of oxygen for deep-water life and “burying" CO2 in Ocean sediments - Thermohaline circulation—a worldwide current system in which warmer, fresher water moves along the surface and colder, saltier water - El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific ocean - El Niño—triggered when air pressure decreases in the Eastern Pacific and increases in the Western Pacific, weakening the equatorial wins and allowing the warm water to flow eastward 1 Sunday, March 27, 2016 - La Niña—Cold waters rise to the surface and extend westward in the Equatorial Pacific when winds blowing to the west strengthened, and weather patterns are affected in opposite ways - Estuaries – water bodies where rivers flow into the ocean, mixing freshwater with saltwater - Salt marshes– occur where the tides washed over gently sloping Sandy or Sophie substrates - Mangroves –salt-tolerant forests that have unique three systems that curve upward like snorkels to attain oxygen or downward like stills to support the tree in changing water levels - Intertidal, Littoral—ecosystems spread between the uppermost reach of the high tide and the lowest limit of the low tide - Tides–the periodic rising and falling of the ocean’s height at a given location, how's with the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun - Kelp– Large brown algae that grow from the floor of continental shelves - Ocean acidification– The excess of CO2 has lowered the pH in seawater, slowing the onset of global climate change - Pelagic—habitats and ecosystems occurring between the ocean surface and floor - Benthic—habitats and ecosystems occurring on the ocean floor - Consumptive use–the removal of water from an aquifer or from a body of surface water without returning it - Non-consumptive use–the use of water that does not remove, or only temporarily removed, water from an aquifer or surface water body. - Sinkholes –when the land surface above aquifers becomes less able to support overlaying strata, and sinks in or collapses due to a loss of water - Flooding –a normal, natural process that occurs when snow melts or heavy rain swells the volume of water in a river so that water spills over the river’s thanks - Dam—any obstructions place in a river or stream to block its flow - Reservoirs—artificial lakes that store water for human use 2 Sunday, March 27, 2016 - Desalination—a supply strategy that generates freshwater by the removal of salt from seawater - Pollution – the release into the environment of matter or energy that causes an undesirable impact on the health or well-being of people or other organisms - Water pollution–comes in many forms and can cause diverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health - Point sources– (some water pollution is emitted from) discrete locations, such as a factory, sewer pipe, or oil tanker - Non-point-source pollution– Cumulative, arising from multiple inputs over larger areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods. - Harmful algal blooms–blooms of marine algae that produce powerful toxins - Red tides–some toxic algal cici's produce a red pigment that discolors the water… harmful blooms can cause illness and death in aquatic animals and people and adversely affect communities that rely on beach tourism and fishing - Waste water–what are you affected by human activities and a source of biodegradable wastes - Septic systems–the most popular method of treating wastewater; waste water runs from the house to an underground septic tank, inside which solids and oil separate from water… the clarified water proceeds downhill to a drain field of perforated pipe played horizontally in gravel filled trenches underground - Primary treatment–about 60% of the suspended solids in the waste water settle out when the wastewater is allowed to sit in settling tanks - Secondary treatment–water is stirred and aerated so that aerobic bacteria consume most of the small particles of organic matter that remain in the wastewater - Wastewater effluent—treated water - Bycatch—the accidental capture of nontarget animals - Marine protected areas (MPAs)—areas of ocean where systems can function without human interference - Marine reserves–areas where fishing is prohibited; “no-take” reserves 3 Sunday, March 27, 2016 Main Points - Freshwater systems: • Groundwater please key roles in the water cycle • Surface water converges in river and stream ecosystems • Lakes and ponds are ecologically diverse systems • Freshwater wetlands include marshes, swamps, bugs, and vernal pools - The oceans: • The physical makeup of the ocean is complex • Ocean currents affect Earth's climate - Marine and coastal systems: • Freshwater meats salt water in estuaries • Salt marshes line temperate shorelines Mangrove forests line coasts in the tropics and subtropics • • Intertidal zones undergo constant change • Kelp forests harbor many organisms • Coral reefs are treasure trove of biodiversity • Open-Ocean ecosystems vary in their biodiversity • Aquatics systems are affected by human activities - Effects of human activities on waterways: • Freshwater and human populations are unevenly distributed across Earth • Water supplies households, industry, and especially agriculture • Excessive water withdrawals can drain rivers and lakes • Groundwater can also be depleted • Bottled water has ecological costs • People build dikes and levees to control floods 4 Sunday, March 27, 2016 • We have erected thousands of dams • We divert surface water to suit our needs - Solutions to depletion of freshwater: • We can decrease our demand for water • Agriculture • Households Industry and municipalities • • Nations often cooperate to resolve water disputes - Water pollution and its control: • Water pollution comes from point sources and non-point sources • Water pollution takes many forms - Toxic chemicals - Pathogens and water borne diseases - Nutrient solution - Biodegradable wastes - Sediment - Oil pollution - Nets and plastic debris - Thermal pollution • Water pollutants can contaminate groundwater • Legislation and regulation have helped to reduce water pollution • We treat our drinking water • We treat our wastewater • Wetlands can aid wastewater treatment - Emptying the oceans: • Fishing has industrialized 5 Sunday, March 27, 2016 • Modern fishing fleets deplete marine life rapidly • Marine reserves protect ecosystems good night love you heart Questions - Explain why the distribution of water on earth makes it difficult for many people to access adequate freshwater. - Pick one of the aquatic systems profiled in this chapter, and provide three examples of ways it interacts with other aquatic systems. - Why are coral reefs biologically valuable? How are they being degraded by human impact? What is causing the disappearance of mangrove forests and salt marshes? - Describe three benefits and three costs of damming rivers. What are the costs and benefits of levees? - Why do the Colorado, Rio Grande, Nile, and Yellow rivers now slowed to a trickle or run dry before reaching their deltas? - Name three major types of water pollutants, and provided an example of each. Explain which classes of pollutants you think are most important in your local area. - Define groundwater, enlist some anthropogenic sources of groundwater pollution. Why do many scientists consider groundwater pollution a greater problem than surface water pollution? - Describe and explain the major steps in the process of wastewater treatment. Okay an artificially constructed wetlands aide such treatment? - Name three industrial fishing practices, and explain how they create by catch and harm marine life. - How does a marine reserve differed from a marine protected area? Why do many fishers oppose marine reserves? Explain why many scientists say no-take reserves will be good for fishers. 6


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