Energy and metabolism study guide!
Energy and metabolism study guide! MPP 3202 - 01
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Hanrahan on Monday December 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MPP 3202 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Alan Parrish in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Medical Technician at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Study guide Energy Balance amp Metabolism A note of caution we will be going through a number of terms which are strikingly even dangerously similar to each other and you will need to keep them straight do not confuse glucose with glucagon glycolysis with glycogen glycogenesis with gluconeogenesis etc etc l have included a little glossary for most of these at the end of this guide USE IT Go over them until you39re totally sick of them then go over them some more You will HAVE TO know the difference between them Lect 1 Mon1130 1 What is energy What kind of work is done by our bodies that requires a steady supply of energy What is energy balance What happens to body weight in positive vs negative energy balance What is energy expenditure a Energy the capacity to do work i Maintain ion gradient ii Maintenance and repair iii Movement iv Reproduction v Lactation vi Homeostasis b Energy balance is a steady state in which energy demanded is balanced with energy supplied i Weight is gained with negative energy weight is lost with positive energy ii Energy expenditure is work heat 2 How is energy content of food measured How would the average person determine how much energy ie how many calories they are eating a It is measured by the amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius b Gross energy content adjusted for indigestible components and for any other relevant losses is then modi ed and used on food labels 3 What are the three major metabolic fuels and what are their speci c energy values ie kcal or kJg Under NORMAL fed conditions what are the predominant fuels and how is that altered during fasting etc a Carbohydrates 4kca b Protein 4kca c Fat 9 kcal d Under normal conditions carbohydrates and fat are used for energy however protein can be used as during fasting or prolonged exercise 4 What is metabolism and how is it related to energy balance What are anabolism amp catabolism What is metabolic rate How is it measured What is basal or standard metabolic rate What factors in uence metabolic rate a Metabolism is the overall energy economy in a cell or organism b Metabolic rate is the sum total of all energy obtaining and energy consuming process i The rate of oxygen consumed by times the use of energy per da ii Standard metabolic rate minimal rate of maintaining ife12 hrs postabsorptive state iii In uencing factors height age weight physical activity level lean muscle mass genetic factors diet c Catabolism breakdown of macromolecules to obtain usable energy as ATP d Anabolism use of energy to produce new macromolecules 5 What is the nal common pathway through which all 3 metabolic fuels pass What is the TCA Krebs cycle and why is it important a Krebs cycle is process of breaking moecues down for the use of ATP 6 In a state of positive energy balance what is the state of metabolism anabolic or cataboic a anaboism 7 Where are the fuels coming from in an anabolic state In a state of negative energy balance what is the state of metabolism and where are the fuels coming from a For anabolic state fuel is coming from small molecules and ATP b Negative energy balance is cataboism and breaks down large molecules in ATP 8 How is energy stored in the body and which stored fue yields the most energy What is glycogen Where is it What is Triglyceride TG Where is it Although protein quotstoragequot is really all over the body where are major stores of it which are used during starvation a Energy is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscecarbs b Glycogen a substance in the form of stored carbohydrates i Stored in liver and muscle for use of energy c Triglyceride is a form of fat stored in adipose tissue d Protein is stored as amino acids in the muscularskeletal system 9 What determines whether metabolism is in an anabolic vs cataboic direction a Metabolism is based on whether an individual is feeding or starving b Catabolism is the breakdown of molecules for fuel c Anabolism is the synthesis of storing moecues 10What are the two counterregulatory hormones characterizing the fed anabolic vs fasted cataboic states which one is anabolic and which one is cataboic What speci c key factor in the blood do they regulate Why is glucose important a Glucagon is cataboic b nsuin is anabolic c These 2 hormones regulate glucose levels d Glucose is the main form of energy for the body 11What are the possible fates of glucose during the fed anabolic state a Either used for energy or stored in the form of glycogen 12What is glycogenesis What is glycogenolysis What is glycolysis What is guconeogenesis What is ipogenesis What is ipoysis What is Triglyceride TG synthesis vs hydrolysis Which of the above processes are anabolic and which ones are catabolic and thus which ones are stimulatedinhibited by insulin vs glucagon Glycogenesis the formation of glycogen Glycogenolysis the break down of glycogen for the use of energy Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose for the use of energy Gluconeogenesis the formation of glucose Lipogenesis the formation of fatty acids Lipolysis is the breakdown of fatty acids to Ach for the use of energy Trigylceride synthesis is the formation of TG from fatty acids in adipose tissue hydrolysis is the breakdown of TG into fatty acids to be used as energy h Anabolic glycogenesis gluconeogenesis lipogenesis triglyceride synthesis i Catabolic glycogenolysis glycolysis lipolysis TG hydrolysis 13What happens to body protein during the fed anabolic state Which hormone predominates under these conditions What happens to protein during the fastedstarving catabolic states Which hormone predominates under these conditions Which of the two hormones discussed in this lecture do you think would favor protein breakdown vs protein synthesis a Anabolic amino acids used strictly for protein synthesis are used for PS if there is large intake the rest is deaminatedturned into ammonia and the left over molecules H and Carbon are used for oxidizing energy insulin is responsible for this b Catabolic increased protein breakdown amino acid carbon skeletons used for gluconeogenesis Glucagon is responsible for this c Glucagon protein breakdown d lnsulin protein storage 14What is the potential problem with protein breakdown and how is this problem solved What chemical moiety is removed from amino acids and how is it dealt with Once that particular issue is dealt with what happens to the carbon skeletons of the amino acids 15Why is protein broken down during fasting a Body proteins are used nitrogen disposal problem NH3 and NH4 toxic requiring more water volumegt problem solved with urea formation in liver to avoid ammonia toxicity b NH2 is removed from amino acids during deamination c Carbon skeleton is used to form glucose 16What is an anapleurotic reaction why is glucose important for anaplerotic reactions and how does the LACK of glucose during the fasted state affect such reactions and therefore the state of the TCA cycle a Anapleurotic reaction feeds intermediate molecules into TCA cycle b Provides carbon precursors for T6 components glycerol and fatty acids and for Krebs cycle c Lack of glucose slows down production of precursors for other cycles and slows down krebs cycle as well 17What are ketone bodies Why are they formed What are the bene tshazards of ketone body production LthrDQpOp a Ketosis is the incomplete oxidation of fatty acids due to combination of low levels of incoming glucose and high levels of fatty acids b KBs can be used for energy but cannot maintain normal function of body i Deplete the body nutrionally cause acidosis from like of pH 18What are the shortterm and longerterm energy reserves in the body How long do they last a Short term ATPseconds b Long term glycogen minutesmonths 19What is the sequence of body fuel reserves used during prolonged starvation What are the two priorities regarding body constituents during fastingstarvation Why is fat so important as a form of stored energy and how does its use along with ketone bodies achieve the abovementioned priorities Why do you think it s important to quotsparequot blood glucose and body protein a Priorities maintain blood glucose conserve body protein b Sequence of body fuel reserve glucosegtglycogengtproteingt fatty acidsgt ketones c Fat is important as it promotes the most energy and can sustain a human the longest Lect2 Wed 12315 1 What is the overall nature of the homeostatic control of metabolism By now you should ALL understand what an ENDOCRINE signaling mechanism entails and thus if I mention quothormonequot you know exactly what kind of signaling molecule I m talking about If you don39t please review the relevant sections in your text or from Dr Parrish39s lectures because endocrine signaling mechanisms gure prominently over both this week39s material on metabolism and the reproductive system a Endocrine system is primary control i Stimulates secreting cellgtsecretes into blood vesselsgt carried to target cells response What endocrine organ secretes insulin amp glucagon What are the Islets of Langerhans and which cells within those structures produce which of these two hormones a Pancreas islets of Langerhans are a group of pancreatic cells that contain secreting cells within them i Alpha cells secrete glucagon ii Beta cells secrete insulin Compare the plasma response of insulin vs glucagon during fasting vs after a meal a Fed insulin dominant during anabolic state i Glucose uptake goes upgt glycogenesisgt glycolysisgt Iipogenesisgt TG storagegt protein synthesis b Fasting glucagon dominant during catabolic state i Development of glycogen fat and storage decrease ii Blood glucose increases breakdown of glycogen for use of energy What factors stimulateinhibit the release of insulin vs glucagon a Insulin stimulated by high blood glucose increased plasma protein incretin from small intestine inhibit by sympathetic stimulation stress b Glucagon stimulated by decrease in blood and plasma glucose sympathetic stimulation inhibited by parasympathetic high glucose release of incretin Which of insulin or glucagon are stimulated in the fed vs fasting states If one vs the other are elevated which energytransforming processes of metabolism are stimulated vs inhibited What are the general cellular mechanisms whereby insulin and glucagon exert their effects What is GLUT4 and in what manner does insulin affect it How does this affect in uence glucose utilization by cells a Fed insulin parasympathetic stimulated sympathetic inhibited b Fast glucagon sympathetic activity stimulated parasympathetic inhibited c GLUt4 insulin activates glucose uptake by inducing translocation of glucose transport protein 4 to the cell membrane 7 What is the accepted clinical de nition of diabetes How is this determined What are the normal prediabetic and diabetic levels of blood glucose in mgdL What is the overall state of metabolism in diabetes a Diabetes is a disease characterized by chronic persistant catabolic state b Diagnosed by measuring fasting levels of glucose in palsma and kinetics of glucose removal after de ned oral glucose load glucose tolerance test c fasting i normal lt100 mgdL ii prediabetic 100125 mgdL iii diabetic gt125 mgdL d 2hr glucose tolerance test i Normal lt140 mgdL ii Prediabetic 140199 mgdL iii Diabetic gt199 mgdL 8 What are the two general types of diabetes and what are the essential similaritiesdifferences between them Why would insulin injections help a patient with Type I diabetes but may not in Type II diabetes a Type 1 failure of beta cells to release insulin b Type 2 adultonset insulin resistance unable to accept insulin 9 What are the possible systemic consequences of diabetes Muscle protein breakdown Hyperglycemia Extreme thirst Overeating Glucoseuria Microvascular disease damage to small blood vessels 10What is insulin resistance and how might obesity be linked to it a Insulin resistance is the inability to take in any glucose or insulin too much sugar and fat in the body from over indulging 11What TYPE of obesity seems associated with the greatest risk of insulinresistancediabetes a Type 1 this is the inability to produce any insulin and causes severe damage to autoimmune system 12What is a lipoprotein a protein which serves as the transport vehicle for lipids cholesterol 13What is VLDL where what organ does it come from and what is its relationship with lDL and LDL a VLDL very low density lipoprotein produced in liver b lDL and LDL intermediate density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein which is derived from VLDL during its plasma passage and metabolism 14What organ is supposed to remove VLDLlDLLDL from the circulation how is that mediated ie what39s the name of the receptor and what can happen if these lipoprotein particles are not properly removed eg why is LDL called quotbadquot cholesterol rhrDonm a Picked up by liver can cause atherosclerosis if not properly removed from blood stream ie swellingclogging of vessels 15Why is HDL called the quotgoodquot cholesterol particle a It picks up cholesterol particles and carries them out of vessels for use 16What are the effects of insulin resistance on VLDL secretionremoval and on HDL a Promotes VLDL production and secretion from the liver b Decreases expression of liver LDL receptor c Increases TG d Decrease plasma HDL 17How do atherosclerotic plaques form and why are they bad a Form from left over cholesterol can lead to heart problems 20Understand that the linkage between obesity and numerous diseases not just diabetes may be a chronic in ammatory state 21What is metabolic syndrome a A cluster of risk factors for diabetes and CVD SOME DEFINITIONS Glycolysis metabolic pathway which breaks down the 6carbon molecule glucose into the 3 carbon intermediate pyruvate When we talk about glucose utilization for either energy production or for conversion to fat for storage this pathway is the first obligatory step and it s activity is FAVORED by insulin and so is highest during the fed anabolic state It occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells and can proceed under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions Gluconeogenesis pathway which is essentially the REVERSE of glycolysis beginning with pyruvate and producing glucose usually so that the newlyproduced glucose can be put into the blood in order to maintain plasma levels This is a catabolic series of reactions and so would be inhibited by insulin but stimulated by glucagon Note that under such conditions body protein can be broken down to amino acids the amino acids are deaminated and their carbon skeletons can feed into the gluconeogenic pathway Glycogenesis under anabolic conditions ie fed statehigh insulinlow glucagonglucose molecules are strung together to form glycogen the storage form of carbohydrate Glycogen is stored in muscle and liver Glycogenolysis catabolic pathway in which stored glycogen is broken down to its constituent glucose molecules either for immediate oxidation for energy or for transport out of the cell into the blood in order to maintain blood glucose levels This pathway is stimulated by glucagon Lipogenesis anabolic pathway occurring mainly in the liver in which 2 carbon subunits of an activated molecule acetylCoA derived from pyruvate see entry for glycolysis above are strung together to build a fatty acid molecule Lipolysis aka betaoxidation catabolic pathway that is the reverse of lipogenesis in which fatty acids are broken down to 2 carbon molecules of acetylCoA Occurs in liver and skeletal muscle Requires oxygen ie aerobic conditions Triglyceride synthesis anabolic pathway in which fatty acids and glycerol are combined to form the storage form of fat triglyceride TG This occurs mainly in adipose but also in liver in adipose the TG is stored whereas in liver it s typically shipped out on VLDL particles Triglyceride hydrolysis catabolic breakdown pathway in which TG is broken down into its constituents fatty acids and glycerol This occurs in adipose and is stimulated by glucagon The released free fatty acids are shipped to the liver via the circulation typically bound to albumin where they will enter the lipolysis pathway see above TCA cycle also called the Krebs cycle this is the major rotary engine of metabolism it s an endlessly revolving cycle of intermediatescarbon flow through this cycle generates 002 for excretion this is the 002 that s going to be shipped off to the lung for expiration and NADH reducing equivalents ie high energy electrons which are bound for the electron transport chain which will eventually generate most of the ATP needed for cellular work Like the electron transport chain this cycle is located in the mitochondria Under anabolic conditions several of the TCA cycle s intermediates can serve as the precursors for most amino acids and in turn under catabolic conditions in which protein is being cannibalized for energy or for gluconeogenesis the deaminated carbon skeletons of the same amino acids can feed into the TCA cycle via those same intermediates Anaplerotic reactions any reaction which generates intermediates for a biochemical cycle In this class it specifically refers to the generation of intermediates for the TCA cycle Such intermediates may be derived from glucose the carbon skeletons of amino acids and possibly other metabolites Deamination the necessary first step in catabolizing amino acids their amino group nitrogen is removed and shunted into the urea cycle for nitrogen disposal Urea cycle pathway which converts the potentially toxic ammonia or ammonium ion derived from deamination of amino acids into the relatively nontoxic urea for excretion by the kidney
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