Chapter 8 notes
Chapter 8 notes Psychology 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Motivation and Emotion • Motives and emotions motivate us to move, act, or prepare for action • The words motive and emotion are both derived from the Latin root movere meaning “to move” Motivation • Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior • “Why’s” of behavior cannot be observed, must be inferred • Instincts o Instinct theory: behavior is motivated by fixed inborn patterns of behavior that are specific to members of a particular species o Problems: list of instincts grew too long to be useful, instincts describe but do not explain behavior, human behavior is too variable and flexible, what about the roles of culture and learning • Drive theory o Maintain that we are motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction o Need: state of deprivation or deficiency o Drive: a state of bodily tension, such as hunger or thirst, arising from an unmet need o Drive reduction: satisfaction of a drive o Homeostasis: tendency to maintain steady internal state o Types of drives: § Primary drives: innate drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desire, arising from basic biological needs § Secondary drives: drives that are learned or acquired through experience, such as the drive to achieve monetary wealth • Arousal theory o We have innate, biological based need for exploration and activity § Stimulus motives: internal states prompting exploratory behavior o Arousal theory: organisms have a basic biologically-based need to maintain stimulation at an optimal level o Needs for stimulation vary § We seek ways to maintain our optimal level of arousal § Strong needs for high levels of sensation (sensation seeking) appears to have a strong genetic component • Incentive theory o Incentives: the pull side of motivation § Rewards or other stimuli that motivate us to act; incentives motivate us by exerting a pull on our behavior o Incentive theory: the belief that our attraction to particular goals or objects motivates much of our behavior § Focuses on the psychological sources of motivation § Holds that motivation is influenced by rewarding goal-related stimuli o Incentive value: the strength of the pull of a goal or reward • Psychosocial needs o Needs that reflect interpersonal aspects of motivation, such as the need for friendship or achievement o Need for achievement: the need to excel in one’s endeavors § Extrinsic motivation: reflects a desire for external rewards § Intrinsic motivation: reflects a desire for internal gratification o Primary motivation § Achievement motivation: the motive or desire to achieve success § Avoidance motivation: the motive or desire to avoid failure • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: concept that there is an order to human needs, which starts with basic biological needs and progresses to self actualization self actualization: fulfillment of individual potential esteem: achievement, respect, prestige, status, approval emotional intimacy, friendships, social connections safe and secure housing, protection from crime and harsh weather hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain, sexual gratification, elimination Hunger and Eating • The hypothalamus o Lateral hypothalamus: involved in initiating eating o Ventromedial hypothalamus: signals when to stop eating o Neurotransmitters and hormones also play important roles o Neuropeptide Y: stimulates appetite and eating • Obesity o In the US 2/3 of adults are overweight and 1/3 are obese o In the US 1/3 of children are overweight or obese o Why is obesity on the rise: § Too many calories § Too little exercise o Casual factors: § Behavioral patterns (eating too fast or too large of portions; adopting unhealthy eating diet, eating fast food too often) § Genetics § Basal metabolic rate § Set point theory: the belief that the brain mechanisms regulate body weight around a genetically predetermined “set point” • Heredity influences body type and set point and our bodies also regulate by controlling food input and energy output • Reducing energy expenditure drops basal metabolic rate: the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest § Number of fat cells in the body o Environmental factors: exposure to food related cues, use of modern energy- saving conveniences o Emotional states: eating in anger, to quell anxiety, boredom, etc. o Suggestions for maintaining a healthy weight § Limit fat intake § Control portion size § Slow down the pace of eating § Beware of hidden calories § Make physical activity a part of your lifestyle • Eating disorders o Anorexia: self starvation resulting in an unhealthy low body weight § Intense fear of becoming fat § Distorted body image § Occurs most often in young women o Bulimia nervosa: characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging § Obsessed with weight § Unhappy with body § Maintains a normal body weight o Cause of eating disorders § Sociocultural factors: thinness and attractiveness § Psychological factors § Biological factors Emotions • Feeling states that psychologists view as having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components • Basic components of emotions o Bodily arousal: nervous system activation o Cognition: subjective experience of the feeling o Expressed behavior: outward expression of emotions • Six basic emotional expressions o Anger o Fear § The James-Lange theory proposes that emotions follow bodily reactions to triggering stimuli • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal⇒ emotion § The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that the subjective experience of an emotion and the bodily reactions associated with it occur virtually simultaneously • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal and emotion § The two-factor model proposes that the combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal (labeling) of the source of the arousal produces the specific emotional state • Perception of stimulus⇒ arousal and “I’m afraid” ⇒emotion § The dual pathway model suggests two pathways for processing fear stimuli in the brain • A high road: the slower path leading to the cerebral cortex • A low road: the faster path leading to the amygdala o Disgust o Sadness o Happiness § Positive psychology: promoting happiness by focusing on strengths and virtues § Emergence of positive psychology focuses renewed attention on human happiness § Two factors seem to predict happiness: having friends, religion • To increase personal happiness: gratitude visits, three blessings, one door closes and another opens, savoring § Three types of happiness: pleasure of doing things, gratification, meaning o Surprise • Display rules: socially and culturally related customs regarding the extent to which one outwardly expresses their emotions, vary from culture to culture • Facial feedback hypothesis o Belief that mimicking facial movements will induce the corresponding emotion o Duchenne smile: a genuine smile that involves contraction of a particular set of facial muscles § Not all smiles are the same • The brain o Emotions are regulated by different areas of the brain o The limbic system (including the amygdala and hippocampus) are involved in the fear response o There are hemispheric differences in the processing of emotions • They polygraph o Device used to detect whether people are lying o Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion § Perspiration § Cardiovascular § Breathing changes o Criticisms: § Lying does not produce any distinctive physiological pattern § One can lie without any telltale physiological reaction
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