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Genetics Lecture 23 Notes

by: Kennedy Finister

Genetics Lecture 23 Notes BIOL3000

Marketplace > Auburn University > BIOL3000 > Genetics Lecture 23 Notes
Kennedy Finister
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all about Transcription mRNA, tRNA, rRNA/function introns/exons
Rita Graze
Class Notes
Genetics, biol 3000, Auburn University, Lecture Notes, Biology, transcription
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL3000 at Auburn University taught by Rita Graze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Lecture 23 Notes March 23, 2016 Central Dogma o Simple description of the flow of genetic information o Dna replication à transcription à Rna à translation à protein (amino acid) o Genotype: Genes o Phenotype: protein Modern Central Dogma o Many genes go from DNAà RNA à protein & other DNA is used to make RNA but the RNA isn’t self functional, never translated into protein o Examples § Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) § Transfer RNA (tRNA) Genes/DNA IN the nucleus Proteins made OUTSIDE nucleus rRNA & tRNA function in translation o Necessary to translate the mRNA but are not themselves translated into a protein tRNA transport amino acids to ribosome rRNA structural component to the ribosome itself Protein Coding RNAs o Messenger RNA (mMRNA) P Non-Coding RNAs T S o Ribosomal (rRNA) o Transfer (tRNA) o Pre-messenger (pre-mRNA) o Small nuclear (snRNA) o Small Nucleolar (snoRNA) o Micro (miRNA) o Small Interfering (siRNA) Viruses can take RNA & make DNA with reverse transcription o The reverse of normal transcription in which a sequence of nucleotides is copied from an RNA template during the synthesis of a molecule of DNA Lecture 23 Notes March 23, 2016 Non-Coding RNA & RNA gene 2 Classes (determine what role they’re going to play) o RNA that stay in the nucleus o RNA that has a function in cytoplasm mRNA o Contains genetic code o Starts out as pre-mRNA o When you take information in DNA & copy it into RNA its in a premature state that needs to be processed to become mature mRNA that is shown outside in the cytoplasm being translated by the ribosome o Sometimes called heterogeneous nuclear RNA or hnRNA § Means transcripts as its originally made from DNA sequence before processing rRNA o Part of ribosome Ribosome is made up of both protein & RNA called ribonucleic protein complex o In order for ribosome to function it needs its protein part & RNA part tRNA o Transport amino acid to ribosome mRNA o Regulate stability of mRNA o How long it exists after its made & be able to be translated into protein snRNA o Involved in processing Gene o Molecular Definition o All the DNA sequence necessary to synthesize a functional RNA molecule & or protein +1 site o 1 base of the RNA transcript genes start at the TATA box (25-35 bp upstream of +1 site) & end at G/C rich Lecture 23 Notes March 23, 2016 exons o contain the code needed to make protein o protein coding regions of pre-mRNA Intron o “intervening sequences” in between chunks that protein code o noncoding o don’t impact phenotype o removed in pre-mRNA à RNA process **mRNA actually only contains exons Non Coding Regions of Genes o there are defined locations of the start and stop of transcription o these define the region that is made into pre-mRNA o defined locations for the start & stop of protein coding sequences within the pre-mRNA o introns are noncoding, but part of pre-mRNA regulating regions are important for gene function but are non coding Stop and start of transcription is different from the stop and start of protein code Different genes have different sequences o can have different number of exons o can be different length of exons Transcription o Where? o Nucleus o What? o DNAàRNA o When? o Usually G0 (non dividing), G1 or G2 (period when genes coding for cellular organelle protons are synthesized) o Growth phase, when DNA isn’t condensed/compact § Aka no during cell division o How? o Gene promoter region defines which nucleotide will be transcribes o Recognition of promoter sequences o Traditional gene § 1 gene (genotype) à 1 RNA (interim) à 1 protein (phenotype) § transcription & translation Lecture 23 Notes March 23, 2016 o RNA genes § 1 gene (genotype) à 1 (phenotype) § transcription ONLY o Basic Rules 1. Transcription is a selective process a. Only certain parts of DNA are transcribed (made into RNA) 2. RNA is transcribed from single standard DNA 3. RNA messages are antiparallel & complementary to the DNA template strand a. Example: ATGC (dna) UACG (rna) 4. Within a “gene” only one strand is going to be transcribed 5. Only 5’-3’ direction a. Adding nucleotides to the 3’ end 6. Transcription depends on RNA polymerase a. Generally RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes i. RNA polymerase II is a complex multicellular complex 7. Promoters contain short sequences (motifs) critical in the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA strand


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