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Forensic Anthropology 3/28/16

by: Danielle Johnson

Forensic Anthropology 3/28/16 Anth 310

Danielle Johnson
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

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Forensic Anthropology 3/28/16 Growth and Development, also Age determination.
Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Dr. Barbian
Class Notes
forensic anthropology, Anthropology, notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Forensic Anthropology     Age Determination  ● Broad Age Period  ○ Growth and Development  ■ Begins with ossification, ends with epiphyseal union and eruption of adult  teeth (15­30)  ■ Changes are rapid, consistent and readily visible  ○ Maintenance  ■ Status quo  ■ Timing of changes not as precise  ○ Atrophy  ■ Changes more variable  ■ Body is wearing down, much harder to predict  ● Bone Creation  ○ Intramembranous  ■ Flat bones  ■ The cells know where to create bones right away  ○ Endochondral  ■ Cartilage ostofies into bone  ● Fetal Age  ○ Long bone diaphyseal length  ■ Olivier and Pineau, 1958  ● Step 1: measure length of limb bone diaphysis  ● Step 2: Calculate fetal stature from regression formula  ● Step 3: Compare fetal stature estimate to graph of lunar month  ● Birth Through Subadult Age Determination methods  ○ Dental mineralization  ■ Study of the development of individual teeth, including the enamel crowns  and roots  ■ Moores et al.  ● Development is compared to bar diagrams  ● Diagrams include means and variation by sex  ● Females are precocious to males  ○ Development is quicker than males  ● The highest low and lowest high will get the most narrow age  range  ○ Dental eruption  ■ Dentition periods  ● Primary: eruption of deciduous teeth only  ● Mixed: deciduous and permanent teeth both present in oral cavity  (6­13) starts with the first molar eruption  ● Permanent: only permanent teeth remain  ■ Schour and Massler, 1944  ■ Ubelaker, 1989  Forensic Anthropology     ○ Long bone diaphyseal growth  ■ Measurements of the bone length  ■ Compare diaphyseal length to charts and growth curves  ■ Choose criteria based on population source  ● Maresh, 1970 University of Colorado has known ages  ○ Union of primary centers of ossification  ■ Early Union  ● Fontanelles optical in the first year frontal in the first year  ● Metopic suture in the second year  ● Atlas 2­3yrs and axis 3­4yrs  ■ Later Union  ● Innominate around 17yrs in males early in females  ● Spheno­occipital synchondrosis 21 yrs in males may be early in  females  ○ Epiphyseal­diaphyseal union patterns  ■ Occurs in a regular, consistent pattern  ■ Marked differences in timing between males and females  ■ General Order of Union:  ● Elbow→ HIp→ Ankle→ Knee→ Wrist→ Shoulder  ■ Methodology  ● Determine sex of individual  ● Assign numeric value to degree of union  ○ 0­unfused  ○ 1­fusing  ○ 2­fused, line still present  ○ 3­epiphyseal line obliterated  ○ Epiphyseal Union of Anterior Iliac Crest  ■ Webb and Suchey, 1985  ■ Stages of union  ● Non­union without epiphysis: no bony bridging  ● Non­union with separate epiphysis  ● Partial Union: gap between epiphysis and diaphysis  ● Complete Union: line between epiphysis and diaphysis  ■ Anterior Iliac crest cont.  ● Non­union without epiphysis  ○ Epiphyseal Union of Medial Clavicle  ■ Owen, 1981  ■ Last bone to complete fusion  ■ Stages of Union  ● Non­Union  ● Partial Union  ● Complete Union  ○ Suchey’s Rule  Forensic Anthropology     ■ If any long bone epiphysis is completely closed: the individual is 15 years  of age or older if female, and 16 years of age or older if male.  ● Adult age determination methods  ○ Osteomorphic changes  ■ Pubic symphyseal face  ● Younger­billows,furrows,ridges  ● Older­smooth, depressed,pitted  ● Todd, 1920  ○ 10 phase system  ○ Sample study based on cadavers; poorly documented  lower­class white males individuals  ○ Limitations  ■ Phases relate to white males only  ■ Oldest phase assignment is 50+ years  ● Suchey and Brooks, 1990  ○ 6 phase system  ○ Sample study based on LA county medical examiner’s  autopsies; well documented ages  ○ Methodology  ■ Step 1: compare symphyseal face morphology with  casts, photographs, and or written descriptions,  pick phase most appropriate  ■ Step 2: provide age estimate that includes 2  standard deviations  ○ Key Indicators:  ■ Phase 1­ Billows  ■ Phase 2­Ossific nodule is obvious  ■ Phase 3­ Ventral rampart completed by the end  ■ Phase 4­ Oval outline almost completed  ■ Phase 5­ Symphyseal rim is marked  ■ Phase 6­ Erratic ossification is eroded   ○ General Rules:  ■ Appearances of deep ridges and grooves = 25  years or less  ■ Appearance of ossific nodules without development  of ventral rampart = less than 31 years  ■ Lack of completion of ventral rampart = less than  41 years  ■ Auricular surface of innominate  ● Lovejoy et al., 1985  ○ Sample study based on todd collection, archaeological  samples, and forensic cases  ○ Methodology  Forensic Anthropology     ■ Step 1: compare agre­related changes in surface  granulation, micro­ and macroporosity, transvers  organization, billowing and striation. Pick phase  most appropriate  ■ Step 2: provide age estimate that includes 2  standard deviation  ○ Billowing­Transverse Ridging  ○ Granularity: Appearance of the compact fine structure on  the surface; a heavily “grained” surface resembles fine  sandpaper  ○ Porosity” Perforation ranging from barely visible to 10mm  in diameter  ○ Density: compactness. Bone appears smooth and shows  marked absence of grain  ■ Cranial suture closure  ● Meindl and Lovejoy, 1985  ○ Sample study based on Todd collection, archaeological  samples, and forensic cases  ○ Closure commences internally to externally  ○ Methodology  ■ Step 1: locate 10 specific suture sites, looking at a  1 cm circle   ■ Step 2: score degree of union   ● 0­ open, no fusion  ● 1­minimal fusion less than 50%  ● 2­significant closure 50­100%  ● 3­closure, obliteration  ■ Step 3: tally points for either lateral­anterior suture  group (sites 6­10) or vault sites (sites 1­7) and  compare to chart  ■ Sternal rib ends  ● Iscan et al., 1985  ● Nine phase system  ● Methodology  ○ Step 1: Compare morphology of sternal end of 4th rib to  phases described for males and females. Note pit shape,  rim morphology, and thinning  ○ Step 2: profid age estimate that includes 2 standard  deviations  ● Younger age­ V­shaped pit, thick walls, scalloped rim  ● Older age­ U­shaped pit, thin walls, irregular rim  ■ Addition adult age techniques  ● Dental aging  Forensic Anthropology     ○ Gustafson” scoring of six dental feature including attrition  (enamel wear and root translucency  ○ Lamendin: three measurements of single­rooted teeth  ● Midshaft cross sections  ○ Kerley: count number of osteons, percentage of lamellae,  etc in four different fields  ■ General Degenerative changes  ● Vertebral osteoarthritis  ○ Lipping of the vertebrates  ● Ossification of cartilage  ○ First cartilage underneath the neck will first calcify then  ossify  ● Bilateral parietal thinning 


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