Chapter 11 (development)
Chapter 11 (development) PSY 110
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Chapter 11: Development 11/04/2015 I. History and Background of Developmental Psychology ▯ II. Issues in Development ▯ III. Prenatal development ▯ IV. Social Attachment ▯ V. Freud’s 5 stages of Psychosexual Development ▯ VI. Piaget’s 4 stages of Cognitive Development ▯ VII. Erikson’s 8 stages of Psychosocial Development ▯ VIII. Lawrence Kohlberg’s 3 levels of Moral Development ▯ IX. Kubler-Ross five stages of Death and Dying ▯ X. Miscellaneous topics ▯ ▯ Development = the study of growth and change over time. ▯ Child Development vs. Life-span Development Used to say development started at birth and went to age 12 or 13 Have other life crisis or developmental stages throughout life = life- span development (mid-life crisis, retirement) Development starts before conception ▯ ▯ Philosophical background: ▯ 1. Middle ages Original Sin goal of childrearing was salvation. Baby was born with original sin ▯ 2. Renaissance (14th to 17th cen.) In the17th cen. John Locke spoke of Tabula Rasa or Blank Tablet. Can make a saint or sinner out of the child- counter to original sin But not born blank slates (cant actually be anything you want) ▯ 3. In the 18th cen. Jean Jacques Rousseau spoke of Innate Goodness (children are born good- society can alter them) or the Noble Savage (primitive people could be more noble then others/pure) (Tarzan) (learn from these people) ▯ 4. More recently, in 1920’s scientists began carefully observing children. John Watson’s demonstration with Little Albert in 1920. Taking more scientific approach to studies with children ▯ In 1960’s U.S. gov’t put money into programs like Head start and Developmental Psychology took of ▯ ▯ II. Issues in Development ▯ A. The Nature/Nurture Issue: ▯ Nature Nurture ▯ Biology Learning ▯ Genetics Environment ▯ Ex. if I child learns to speak late is it because or nature or something we did ▯ B. Continuity/Discontinuity ▯ Continuity Development= tree, once tree seed sprouts, steady and constant growing- smooth and continuous ▯ Discontinuity= butterfly, lots of abrupt changes/stages ▯ ▯ C. ▯ Cross Sectional- quick easy; groups of subjects of diferent ages; conclusions may be drawn about behavior diferences which may be related to diferent ages; can get false findings ▯ Longitudinal research methods- observe someone at diferent ages, throughout their life; gives most accurate research, ex. Looking at IQ- can get worse as you get older ▯ John Horn,1980- 2 types of intelligence ▯ Fluid Intelligence- ability to learn new things (starts out high drops of rapidly) Ex. Learning language at young age (2yrs old) ▯ Crystallized Intelligence- apply what you’ve already learned to new situations ▯ - when one drops the other compensates so stable IQ line ▯ - ex. Why he can still teach even though he is old ▯ III. Prenatal development ▯ 1. Stages: ▯ Zygote 0-2 wks ▯ Embryo 2-8 wks ▯ Fetus 2- 9 months ▯ 2. Teratogens (monster makers): any agent that might cause a birth defect ▯ Alcohol why women don’t drink while pregnant- causes fetal alcohol syndrome (can lead to mental retardation), child is drunk in the womb so don’t learn as much can lead to attentional deficit ▯ Aspirin Can cause respiratory problems and bleeding ▯ Heavy metals like lead & mercury Afects brain- could lead, mental retardation, still birth, also weakness in math- mainly found in paint, but also in gas ▯ Vitamin A and D in large doses Cleft pallet, eye damage: too much vitamin A Mental Retardation: too much vitamin D ▯ Thalidomide Invented as a less addictive sleeping med, women told docs that it would prevent morning sickness (of label prescribed never in US though); whether or not arms/legs were normal while taking Thalidomide depended on the day the women took it (28 day) th New birth defect emerged- no arms or no legs, or flipper like arms or legs- seriously disabled ▯ Rubella Disease- (German Measles)- type of Measles- can cause mental retardation, nerve damage, impaired eyes or hearing (born blind or deaf) ▯ 3. Advantages of breast feeding (mothers milk) ▯ - Improves immune system (mothers system passes some immunity onto child) ▯ - Creates stronger bond between mother and child ▯ - Perfect nutrition (evolution created specific formula) ▯ ▯ IV. Social Attachment (most important idea in course) ▯ -Bond between Mother and Child ▯ A. Freud- Says children bond to mother because she feeds them- Oral Gratification ▯ B. Harlow and Zimmerman (1959); Contrast Comfort ▯ - disagreed with Freud said contact and warmth led to more important bond with mother ▯ Made experiment: worked mostly with monkeys in isolation– surrogate mother not real but no matter which mother had milk the baby would bond with the softer and warmer mother ▯ C. Konrad Lorenz ▯ - lived in Austria before WWII wealthy ▯ - Did experiment with waiting bird (webbed feet) ▯ - Imprinting during a critical period ▯ when they hatch (about same time) they follow the first thing that moves (tried wind up things, could be dog, or actual mother) but after hour animal says that’s its mother ▯ ▯ D. Erik Erikson (1968) ▯ -made 8 stages of crisis ▯ Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-2) ▯ - Said attachment for humans probably included all 3 theories (Oral Gratification, Contrast Comfort, and Imprinting) and maybe more, create sense of Trust Only way to develop perfect trust is to meet every need of child immediately (must do it in the 1 2 years) st A securely attached child is much more likely to have happy life and be better in the other stages of their life ▯ E. Mary Ainsworth Tested this Trust Vs. Mistrust with a Test ▯ - lead child into strange room (new to them), mom leaves, kid left with random person and blanket of toys- watch the kid while the mom leaves, what it does when she’s gone, and what they do when she returns. ▯ Mistrust X Trust ▯ ▯ Securely (good attachment, right amount) or Insecurely attached ▯ too much dependency- can lead to insecurely attached child. Can come from having another kid too soon (taking attention) People who are never tested go through life and think problem is someone else (not their insecure issue causing issues in their relationships) If your mom bad parent often you turn out to be bad mom ▯ ▯ V. Freud’s 5 stages of Psychosexual development ▯ 1. Oral ▯ 2. Anal ▯ 3. Phallic ▯ 4. Latency ▯ 5. Genital ▯ ▯ VI. Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development ▯ Jean Piaget- Swiss philosopher, psychologist, observed children, student of Binet (intelligence testing) ▯ - when we learn something new we either assimilate or accommodate (Schemas- outline in brain (framework)- like file cabinet) ▯ Assimilation- new information fits pre-existing schema ▯ Accommodation- new info doesn’t fit- must modify schemas Ex. Little boy walking in park, sees bird, says mom look a birdie and mom says yes that’s a blue bird- might not know it was a blue bird- assimilates it with other birds See’s another thing says look another bird, mom says no that’s a butterfly, has to accommodate and distinguish diferences between birds and butterflies ▯ - when you’re right you assimilate; when wrong, learn and accommodate ▯ (Egocentricism) ▯ Cognitive Development- stops at age 12 (child development theory) ▯ 1. Sensorimotor (0-2) ▯ - all learning occurs through sensing and movement (child reaching for clock, ex. Binocular disparity, learn through seeing)(tying shoe while talking) ▯ Object Permanence- when object is out of room or unseen it still exists; (Out of sight out of mind) those with secure attachment know they will come back Testing child with fav. toy, see what they do when put cardboard in front of toy ▯ 2. Preoperational (2-7) Symbolic Reasoning ▯ - using letters numbers or musical notations (pencils as dragons etc.) ▯ 3. Concrete Operational (7-12) ▯ -mental manipulation of a real physical object (math with cubes) ▯ Conservation- if nothing was added or removed it still has to be the same ▯ Tests: liquid test; mountains test- backwards image test depending on what side your on (your right or my right) 4. Formal Operational (12 & older) Abstract or Hypothetical Thinking ▯ -children think abstractly or thinking hypothetically (what college should be about- less concrete- apply the concept) ▯ ▯ VII. Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development ▯ Lifespan theory- more focus on social ▯ Disagreed with Freud on sexual development (important still)- stages are Crisis ▯ 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-2) Infant ▯ -oral, but more than just sexual ▯ 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4) Toddler ▯ -independence: want kids to be autonomous (toilet training); kids want be grown ups (usually good thing) ▯ -want to toilet train them to be free of diapers but don’t want to belittle them which can scare/ make them shameful ▯ -kids start saying no (mind of their owns) (terrible twos) ▯ 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6) Early School ▯ initiative= active exploration and investigation of the environment ▯ 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12) Middle School ▯ - inferiority complex: sometimes establishes- making kids feel inadequate ex. kid who’d never had glasses finally gets them ▯ industry= an eagerness to build skills and understand ▯ - when kids ask questions to initiate convo “why are you painting the house…can I help” want to let them help/give them task… don’t want to make them feel inferior by saying no your too little etc. ▯ 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-22) ▯ Identity- figure out who you are (socially, sexuality, religion) ▯ Role confusion= never figuring out who we are ▯ Ex. “what do you want to be when you grow up?” –role exploration ▯ - historically men form identity/role prior to marriage, where as women go into identity foreclosure where identity is formed after the marriage ▯ - empty nest syndrome- where women let others define them ▯ - best for both partners to form identity prior to marriage ▯ - if you don’t form own identity (identity foreclosure) then you resent it and can result in mid-life crisis. ▯ Adolescence: ▯ Early 12-18: work on group identity (often by music) defining apart from family ▯ -Ex. Liked the Beatles (college) or liked the Rolling Stones (the rats) ▯ Late 18-22: defining true identity: forming identity within the group 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (22-34) Early Adult Intimacy= the ability to experience open supportive relationships without the fear of losing the identity you just created for yourself. ▯ - ability to have an opinion and voice it- can disagree, think for yourself ▯ 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (34-60) Middle Adult ▯ Generativity= motivation to care about, and help future generation (wanting to make world a better place) ▯ -start focusing on children or grandchildren more and themselves less; teaching; running for positions (congress); anything that devotes energy to the future that’s not done for your own personal reasons ▯ 8. (Ego)Integrity vs. Despair (60 & up) Late Adult ▯ - people living longer and healthier lives now in days ▯ Integrity= when you’re old and looking back at the past are you reasonably happy/satisfaction or despair/bitter ▯ - if you live a life with intimacy, generativity, etc, you’re more likely to be happier when you’re old and looking back (have no regrets) ▯ ▯ VIII. Lawrence Kohlberg's (1927-1987) –worked with Piaget; but focused on moral ▯ Three Stages (levels) of Moral Development: ▯ 1. Preconventional (4 to 10 years old)= guided by Punishment and Rewards ▯ - ex. Grown up doing good deeds only to get into heaven ▯ 2. Conventional (early adolescence)= guided by Rules and Laws ▯ - apply rules and laws instead of creating our own ▯ ex. kid who can eat cookie and get away with it (preconventional) vs. kid who can eat cookie and get away with it but doesn’t because still knows its wrong ▯ 3. Post Conventional (Internal Code) as few as 25% reach this level of moral reasoning. ▯ - raised by parents who taught you, started to internalize rules, decide if you agree challenge the code ▯ -looks within own moral code and see if you think its right ▯ ex. “I know the law says this but I don’t agree I’m going to do this” ▯ ex. Not agreeing to what Hitler told them to do ▯ ▯ IX. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross: 5 Stages of Death, Dying and Grief ▯ 1. Denial- live life as though you will live forever- Freudian idea ▯ 2. Anger- why me? ▯ 3. Bargaining- some turn to higher power “if you help me I’ll do this…” ▯ 4. Depression- if bargaining fails ▯ 5. Acceptance- harder to die at peace today: dying with dignity ▯ -wrote books, helped with grief counseling ▯ ▯ X. Miscellaneous topics ▯ A. The (Old?) Storm and Stress View of Adolescence ▯ Old- used to be called Storm and Stress View- adolescence is a period of hormonal upheaval (storm and stress); if you can get them through this period of stress alive then they can live normal lives after. ▯ - changed thinking: no longer believed that this is a period of storm and stress- said most teens get through this period relatively unscathed. ▯ - today this view is back and believed to be true again- no longer old view ▯ ▯ B. An Emerging Theory of Morality ▯ (article) Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham in Social Justice Research, 2007 ▯ When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals may not Recognize ▯ ▯ -cant make progress if both sides hate each other (going on everywhere) ▯ -liberals (thinking of future being better) don’t hurt others; if someone does something bad punish, good reward not big on in group loyalty helping people who cant help themselves ▯ -conservatives (thinking past was better) big on all 5 ▯ I. What is it?(Definition) ▯ II. Attitudes ▯ III. Groups ▯ IV. Aggression (text only) ▯ V. Prejudice ▯ VI. Interpersonal Attraction (text only) ▯ ▯ Social Psych= the scientific study of interactions between 2 or more people (can relate to author in a novel, can respond to anything another person produced and still be interaction- doesn’t have to be physical) ▯ ▯ II. Attitudes = Beliefs or opinions about anything. ▯ - way you think determines way you act (used surveys) ▯ - attitude behavior problem= people say something but then never do it ▯ ex. say they help the homeless but never do people want to present themselves in a desirable way but its not actually accurate ▯ - created (The ABC Model) to get accurate behavior and attitude research ▯ A= affect (+-) ; mood, emotional, component Ex. Claim to love apples= strong positive afect ▯ B= Behavior; must match professed belief or opinion Ex. Must eat apples or photograph them something ▯ C= Cognitive; must have conscious awareness about how you feel about something Ex. Must know that you love apples ▯ A. Persuasion= efort to change someone’s attitude ▯ factors that help persuasion ▯ ▯ Message 1-sided persuasive message works best when the audience is initially interested in the message (ex. People who already have given $ to org, org says their great encourage them to give more) 2-sided message works best when the audience is initially opposed (ex. “I’m sure you have reasons why you haven’t given $”, reassure them of facts/figs to counteract their concern) ▯ Audience initially thought women more persuaded easily (when studies only run by men, women redid studies on things they knew more about) more easily persuaded on things we know less about Forewarning= way of reducing persuasion (ex. introduce someone as someone who’s trying to persuade you) Inoculation= way to reduce persuasion (injecting a weakened form of a disease agent (persuasive argument) to build up antibodies (create counter arguments)= weakened form or argument, refuted ▯ ▯ B. Cognitive Dissonance = negative state when someone engages in behavior that goes against their attitudes ▯ ▯ - Leon Festinger, 1957(study on cognitive dissonance; $1 $20 study) ▯ - Less is more study (less $ led to more attitude change/positive evaluation) ▯ 1 part- made most boring/pointless tasks (turning spools quarter ways) nd ▯ 2 part- then had to go recruit other students to encourage them to sign up for the study (lied about how interesting- some paid $1 some paid $20) rd ▯ 3 - had to fill out survey and answer how interesting each part of study was (1 part of study: $1 said it was not as boring; $20 said it was really boring) ▯ -attitude discrepant behavior: all students lied while recruiting peers ▯ -cog dis: $1- changed thinking/attitude $20- sought justification by saying lying but I did it for $ ▯ - way you act often determines the way you think ▯ C. Causal Attribution= judgment about the cause of someone else’s behavior (make judgment that they said it’s true; or trying to manipulate you, being sarcastic) judgment on why they did it ▯ Ex. friend got high grade on test; she was worried Stable Unstable ▯ Internal smart(personality) she worked extra hard ▯ External test must’ve been an easy test she got lucky ▯ ▯ 1. Fundamental Attribution Error ▯ 2. Actor-Observer Effect ▯ 3. Self-Serving Bias when judging others we usually think they’re the problem o ex. Driving recklessly we probably think they’re just a bad driver and not something like they’re rushing to the hospital overuse internal attributions when judging others when we do it to ourselves (even if it’s the same action) we overuse the external attributions- called self serving bias taking full credit for good things (internal) blaming bad things on others (external) –healthy people do this (depressed people do it backwards) ▯ III. Groups (studying individuals in the groups) ▯ A. Social Influence- anything someone can do to influence another 1. Conformity (Asch)= going along with social norms; usually unwritten Asch’s Conformity Study Standard A B C Have to pick which one is same length as standard Group of college men only last mans response was part of experiment- conformity study Everyone says A before him so last person conforms and says A (76%) Those who conformed and knew it was wrong did so to be part of the group (normity conformity) Others thought that the others before them all said A so they must be right he must be wrong (informational conformity) Reluctant to stand out from the group without an ally (even if ally is a blind man in this vision test)= Power of an ally ▯ Compliance (2 step processes) ▯ -Door-in-the-face (old door-to-door salesmen)= large request followed by a small request ▯ ask for something big; slam the door in their face, feel guilty and open it again ask for something smaller a big request might make them feel guilty and then more willing to do small request ex. Can you buy me a car… no… well is there anyway I could borrow it for the weekend” st more likely to get what you want if you ask for something larger 1 ▯ ex. ask college kids ½ asked about bus trip 1 ; ½ asked about 2 yr program 1 ; those asked about 2yr program 1 more willing to volunteer with the bus trip ▯ - Foot-in-the-door= small request followed by a large doubled compliance rate ▯ ex. in CA: what liquid soap do you use? People answer. Called a week later and say they would like to survey all other their products vs. getting a call about surveying all their products 25% said yes w/out small request 1 ; 50% after 1 small request st 2. Compliance= going along with a specific request “will you…” ▯ 3. Obedience=going along with a direct order; authority figure ▯ Stanley Milgram– wanted to know if punishment influenced teaching ▯ Real participant was rigged to also be the teacher- tricked participants Told them that they were to shock person if they got wrong answer Memorize list of words; multiple choice (blue bird) give you word blue have to choose bird; if wrong you get shocked; each answer you got wrong shock got stronger Learner and teacher/experimenter in diferent rooms ▯ - experimenter (authority figure) continues to tell teacher to keep shocking him: what % would go all the way to the end? (about 65%) ▯ - human beings will follow legitimate authority all the way to the point of destruction ▯ -#1 way to stop conformity was to have an alley who said you can have your $ back I’m done, and then real participant would stop too- power of alley ▯ B. Groupthink (Janis, 1967) ▯ thinking process that leads to a bad decision made by committee or a group; groups often make worse decisions that no individual members would have made Ex. “I don’t think this is a good idea but everyone else is in favor so I’ll do it “ no one expresses their doubts, so even if everyone thinks it’s a bad idea no one says anything ▯ Causes of Groupthink ▯ - illusion of invulnerability ▯ - strong pressure to conform to group ▯ - strong leader who makes his/her opinion known at short ▯ - mind guarding (always looking for reasons not to do something) ▯ Methods to prevent Groupthink ▯ 1. someone who plays devils advocate ▯ 2. participation is anonymous ▯ 3. everyone told to raise as many objections as possible ▯ ▯ C. Helping in an Emergency ▯ 1963- research began when woman was murdered in Queens NY on her doorstep no one helped (new yorker’s don’t care about their neighbors)- didn’t call police; everyone assumed someone else would do something best way to get people to help is to teach them ▯ 1. The Bystander Effect- the more people that are present in an emergency the less likely it is that anyone will help ▯ a. Fear of Social Blunder- because people are afraid of doing something foolish; engage in social comparison (look around at what others are doing; come up with explanations) ▯ b. Diffusion of Responsibility- if you’re not the only there you don’t have all the responsibility (more people less responsibility for you to react- not your job) vs. if you’re the only one there you feel like you have to do something ▯ ex. testing with staged emergency on subway train with diferent amounts of people ▯ ▯ IV. Aggression (no lecture, text only) ▯ A. Instinct (Freud Thanatos & Eros) ▯ - From motivation lecture, instinct theories of aggression gave way to drive theories ▯ B. Drive(Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis, 1939) ▯ - A popular, but outdated, theory that said all aggression stems from frustration of some desire ▯ C. Social Learning - The current theory that claims aggressive behavior is learned classically, operantly or observationally. This is more optimistic because it does not have to be learned. A nonviolent world is possible ▯ V. Prejudice ▯ 1. Prejudice= An attitude about a person based solely on their membership in a group (pre-judge) ▯ 2. Stereotypes= a component of prejudice; a belief that they’re all alike; all stereotypes have prejudices ▯ ex. women are not strong enough ▯ 3. Discrimination= a behavior based on a prejudice belief ▯ ex. I don’t think a woman can do this job… (thinking ok) but if you say I wont hire her because of thoughts that’s when its discrimination/illegal (instead test her) ▯ 4. Racism= the belief that observable differences between races is due to genetics ▯ ex. if you go into city in US and give SAT test come back and say here is mean Hispanic score, Asian score, etc. (ex. Asian’s superior at math) ▯ 5. Sexism= observable differences between the sexes are due to genetics (parallel to racism) ▯ ex. can get away with some (men have 2 testicles women have none b/c of genetics technically racist argument but non ofensive ▯ B. Social Categorization=strong tendency to divide the world (Us vs. Them) ▯ 1. Us vs. Them- Us (in group) ; Them (out group) those who are like me, those who aren’t my people are the superior group (more of all good things); they are all bad things out group-homogene (all alike-bad) ; in group-heterogene (varied) ▯ 2. Illusory Correlations- a pattern that doesn’t exist in the data; believe you see pattern when no pattern actually exists selective attention, theory perseverance= select data that proves point, disregard other data (why astrology works) o happens unconsciously human nature; why scientific method created ▯ 3. Self-Serving Bias (again)= only info that benefits your group or proves argument about other group, regardless of actual evidence ▯ 4. The Ultimate Attribution Error= when judging person in other group blame group; when person in your group does something bad blame person not your own group ▯ ▯ VI. Interpersonal Attraction (text) ▯ A. Important factors ▯ 1. Similarity ▯ 2. Proximity ▯ 3. Reciprocity ▯ 4. Physical Attractiveness- #1 thing that draws people together; even in heterosexual friendships ▯ B. Romantic Love ▯ 1. Passionate love ▯ 2. Companionate love ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ I. Emotions ▯ - Darwin originally said only 6 primary emotions ▯ A. Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions ▯ - 8 primary emotions; like color wheel emotions can mix make more (mixed emotions- secondary)= 8 primary, 8 secondary vary in levels in emotion ▯ emotions cant mix (no joy and sadness) ▯ ▯ B. How do we know others’ emotions ▯ - facial expressions and vocal tones Can ask but not always honest Darwin said facial expressions part of our endowment (all humans smile when they’re happy.. etc) Duchenne smile truly happy smile; but lots of other types of smiles Paul Ekman- created facial expressions o Took actors/actresses/photos and people would recognize them happy, sad based on facial expression ▯ C. How do we know our own emotions (Three theories of the experience of emotions) ▯ 1. James-Lange: (linear) ▯ perceived stimulus body response experienced emotion ▯ ex. see bull that looks mad; react (fight or flight) actual action; depending on action you use determines your emotion/how you feel ▯ 2. Cannon-Bard: (1 thing leads to 2) ▯ perceived stimulus experienced emotion or body responses ▯ 3. Schachter & Singer: 1 thing leads to 1 thing leads to another ▯ - Suproxin Study: vision test but everyone given adrenaline ▯ some told drug might give you the following symptoms; some waiting with happy stranger others waited with angry stranger happy angry ▯ told ▯ not told happy angry ▯ ▯ those who were told thought they were more happy because warned they might be flustered vs. those who were getting flustered and thinking they must be getting angry ▯ (lead to) ▯ perceived stimulus body arousal + cognitive label experienced emotion ▯ ▯ D. Are Emotions taught? ▯ - Darwin said emotions part of our endowment ▯ - Recognition of other peoples expressions must be learned (autistic kids) ▯ - If one monkey gets scared (see on face) the other ones react; have to learn if in isolation though ▯ ▯ II. Stress = wear and tear on the body due to the demands placed on it. ▯ - good stress and bad stress (don’t want to live in a stress free world) ▯ - under lots of stress more likely to get sick A. Sources of stress ▯ 1. Life Events(Holmes and Rahe, 1967) Checklist ▯ - Major Life-Events Checklist: if this event happened to put a check (marriage, had a baby, graduated) each event had corresponding point ratings; also got a health test and score ▯ - correlated stress score with health score (didn’t find strong correlation) did not measure minor daily little things that cause stress also didn’t measure coping mechanisms/abilities ▯ - after measuring these^ found correlation between stress and health (evolutionary response- fight or flight) not designed for long term stress ▯ 2. Cognitive Appraisal (Lazarus) ▯ - what you think about something determines how stressful it is glass half empty (more stressful) or half full ▯ 3. Conflicts decisions and choices ▯ - don’t want too many choices/options (leads to more stress) ▯ 4. Frustration = Blocking of goal directed behavior ▯ - something that gets in the way of what you want/need to do ex. Traffic making you take longer than it should ▯ 5. Environmental Sources (heat, humidity, noise, crowding) particularly when: ▯ unexpected (its hot in August always is; but if its hot in Dec more stressful) ▯ unpredictable uncontrollable - humanity wants to predict and control things; (the illusion of control- praying)